lecture 3 bild - BILD 3 30 June 2010 LECTURE 3 MENDEL AND...

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BILD 3 30 June, 2010 Woodruff: Agents of microevolution 1 LECTURE 3 MENDEL AND HEREDITY INTRODUCTION TO POPULATION GENETICS FOUR AGENTS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE CAMPBELL: CHAPTERS 13, 14, 15 I WILL ASSUME YOU HAVE ALREADY MASTERED THIS MATERIAL IN BIO-1 OR HS…… SECTIONS START TODAY LECTURE 3 - AGENTS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES 1. AVOID 3. RESPOND 5. DO EXTINCT REGULATORY CHANGE PUPIL OF THE EYE, THERMOREGULATION ACCLIMATORY CHANGE SKIN TANNING, ALTITUDE DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE PLANT PHENOTYPE, LOCUST PHASE EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE EVOLUTION IS A FACT The theory to explain evolutionary change is sometimes called Neo-Darwinism comprising: CHARLES DARWIN’s THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION (1836 notes, 1858 paper, & 1859 Origin of Species book) ALFRED RUSSELL WALLACE (1858 paper) and MENDELIAN HEREDITY 1866 (Re-discovered in 1901) POPULATION GENETICS (Fisher, Haldane, Wright in 1920’s) and THE MODERN SYNTHESIS (1940’s): paleontology, biogeography, behavior, sociobiology, anatomy, morphology, development, molecular genetics (since 1960’s). EVOLUTION REPLACED CREATIONIST HYPOTHESES EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE Change in allele frequency in a population change in gene frequency: not really Genetic change occurs in individuals and effects their reproductive fitness and the frequency of favored alleles in populations. May lead to adaptation May lead to speciation CHROMOSOMES Chapter 12 CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS ENSURES DNA DUPLICATION IN DAUGHTER CELLS HUMAN KARYOTYPE 2N = 46 DIPLOID N = 23 HAPLOID X, Y SEX-CHROMOSOMES CROSSING OVER DURING MEIOSIS CREATES NEW RECOMBINANT CHROMOSOMES see Fig. 13.12
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BILD 3 30 June, 2010 Woodruff: Agents of microevolution 2 CHAPTER 13 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Meiosis: process of reduction division to produce haploid N gametes from diploid 2N cells Fertilization: egg and sperm unite to form a zygote restoring the diploid number The maternal and paternal chromosomes are independently assorted during 1st metaphase of meiosis Crossing over (breakage and reciprocal re-fusion) between homologous maternal & paternal chromosomes during
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