L12 vertebraes - BILD 3 July 12, 2010 Living vertebrate...

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BILD 3 July 12, 2010 Woodruff: vertebrates 1 Living vertebrate classes Agnatha: jawless, cartilaginous, notochord lampreys, hagfish Chondrichthyes: cartilaginous sharks & rays, jaws, vertebrae replace notochord, gills Actinopterygii: ray-finned bony fish Lobed-finned fish: coelacanths, lungfish Amphibia: aquatic larval stage, metamorphosis, tetrapods Reptilia: terrestrial tetrapods with shelled amniotic egg, scales, some marine & freshwater. Aves: feathers, wings, endothermic Mammalia: tetrapods, hair, mammary glands, diaphragm, endothermic DEUTEROSTOME: ECHINODERM: CRINOID SOLITARY & COLONIAL TUNICATES LARVA Notochord Dorsal hollow nerve cord Pharynx with gill slits Tail FOUR MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF CHORDATES Fig. 34-2 Lobed fins Legs Amniotic egg Milk Jaws, mineralized skeleton Lungs or lung derivatives Vertebral column Head Notochord Common ancestor of chordates ANCESTRAL DEUTERO- STOME Echinodermata (sister group to chordates) Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, chimaeras) Cephalochordata (lancelets) Urochordata (tunicates) Myxini (hagfishes) Petromyzontida (lampreys) Mammalia (mammals) Actinopterygi (ray-finned fishes) Actinistia (coelacanths) Amphibia (frogs, salamanders) Dipnoi (lungfishes) Reptilia (turtles, snakes, crocodiles, birds) Chordates Craniates Vertebrates Gnathostomes Lobe-fins Osteichthyans Tetrapods Amniotes FIG. 34.2 CHORDATE PHYLOGENY CHORDATES – the 12-step program 1. Notochord – dorsal rod 2. Gill slits 3. Hollow dorsal nerve cord 4. Tail Cephalochordata: lancets Urochordates: tunicates 5. Head ( craniates ) hagfish 6. Vertebral column ( vertebrates ) lampreys 7. Jaws, mineralized skeleton (gnathostomes) chondrichthys: sharks, rays 8. Lungs or lung derivatives: ray-finned fish CHORDATES (continued) 8. Lungs or lung derivatives Ray-finned fish (osteichthyes) 9. Lobed fins Coelacanth Lungfish 10. Legs (tetrapods) Amphibians 11. Amniotic egg (amniotes) Reptiles (now includes the birds) 12. Hair & milk Mammals CEPHALOCHORDATA: LANCET EYES, BRAIN, SKULL ( CRANIATA ) BUT NO SKULL CAMBRIAN 530 MYA
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BILD 3 July 12, 2010 Woodruff: vertebrates 2 Hagfish: most primitive craniate lineage surviving. No jaw or vertebrae Lampreys: oldest living lineage of vertebrates Cartilaginous skeleton Jawless ectoparasites of fish Cambrian conodont (Early vertebrate with 1st mineralized teeth) Ostracoderms: jawless armored vertebrates still lacking bones or teeth or endoskeleton GNATHOSTOMES ARE VERTEBRATES THAT HAVE JAWS Early gnathostomes = placoderms Evolution of vertebrate jaws Fig. 34-20 Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths Lungfishes Eusthenopteron Panderichthys Tikta lik Elginerpeton
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This note was uploaded on 07/28/2010 for the course BIOLOGY BILD 3 taught by Professor Davidwoodruff during the Summer '10 term at San Diego.

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L12 vertebraes - BILD 3 July 12, 2010 Living vertebrate...

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