L17 ecological energetics

L17 ecological energetics - BILD 3 July 19, 2010 Why...

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BILD 3 July 19, 2010 Woodruff: ecological energetics 1 Why biodiversity matters Atropine Belladonna plant Pupil dilator in eye exams Digitalin Foxglove Heart medication Menthol Eucalyptus cough medicine Morphine opium poppy pain relief Quinine Cinchona bark malaria treatment Taxol Pacific yew tree ovarian cancer drug Tubocucarine curare tree surgical muscle relaxant Vinblastin rosy periwinkle leukemia drug ECOLOGICAL ENERGETICS & TROPHIC STRUCTURE • Trophic structure is the feeding relationships between organisms in a community • Food chains link trophic levels from primary producers to top carnivores • Energy flows through the community until there is none left • Nutrients cycle within the community LE 54.11 Quaternary consumers Tertiary consumers Carnivore Carnivore Carnivore Carnivore Secondary consumers Carnivore Carnivore Primary consumers Zooplankton Herbivore Primary producers Phytoplankton Plant A terrestrial food chain A marine food chain TOP CARNIVORE CARNIVORES HERBIVORE AUTOTROPHS FOOD CHAINS MOST FOOD CHAINS HAVE 3-4 TROPHIC LEVELS A FEW OF SIX ARE KNOWN LE 54-12 Euphausids (kril ) Carnivorous plankton Phyto- plankton Copepods Squids Elephant seals Fishes Birds Crab-eater seals Leopard seals Sperm whales Smal er toothed whales Baleen whales Humans FOOD WEB LE 54-13 Zooplankton Fish larvae Fish eggs Sea nettle Juvenile striped bass JELLYFISH IS A SECONDARY AND A TERTIARY CONSUMER
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BILD 3 July 19, 2010 Woodruff: ecological energetics 2 Limits on Food Chain Length • The energetic hypothesis suggests that length is limited by inefficient energy transfer • The dynamic stability hypothesis proposes that long food chains are less stable than short ones Ecosystems An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community, as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact Ecosystems range from a microcosm, such as an aquarium, to a large area such as a lake or forest LE 55-4 Microorganisms and other detritivores Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Detritus Primary consumers Sun Primary producers Heat Key Chemical cycling Energy flow • Primary production in an ecosystem is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period • The amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface limits photosynthetic output of ecosystems • Only a small fraction of solar energy actually strikes photosynthetic organisms • Only a small fraction can actually be “fixed” by photosynthesis into biomolecules. Trophic efficiency is the percentage of production
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This note was uploaded on 07/28/2010 for the course BIOLOGY BILD 3 taught by Professor Davidwoodruff during the Summer '10 term at San Diego.

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L17 ecological energetics - BILD 3 July 19, 2010 Why...

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