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L15 competition - BILD 3 QUICK QUIZ What is the size of the...

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BILD 3 July 16, 2010 Woodruff: competition 1 QUICK QUIZ What is the size of the human population today? What is the population of California? of USA? How many additional people will be added to the species population this year? How many new people (net new) were added this hour? What Is a Community? A biological community is an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction Ecologists call relationships between species in a community interspecific interactions Interspecific interactions affect species survival and reproduction Examples are competition, amensalism, predation, herbivory, symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism), and disease Amensalism (–/0) Allelopathy, allelochemics
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BILD 3 July 16, 2010 Woodruff: competition 2 AMENSALISM –/0 Allelopathy, antibiosis, allelochemics TO PROTECT SPACE WALNUT – JUGLONE: 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone inhibits growth of many seedlings MINT (SALVIA) – TERPENES: cineole, camphor COUCH GRASS – PHENOLIC ACID: from roots, inhibits growth of cultivars TO PROTECT TISSUE MILKWEED – cardiac gylcosides, emetic ALKALOIDS: colchicine, nicotine, caffeine, quinine, codeine, mescaline, strychnine INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION SCRAMBLE COMPETITION f or some limiting resource Drosophila larvae in culture tube: success determined by initial weight and rate of assimilation. CONTEST COMPETITION Fighting, cannibalism, territoriality, dominance Barnacles: Balanus overgrows, undercuts, crushes Chthamalus Chthamalus Balanus LE 54-3 Chthamalus fundamental niche High tide Low tide Ocean Chthamalus realized niche High tide Low tide Ocean Balanus realized niche Chthamalus Balanus Balanus invades area occupied by Chthamalus 1 MONTH: 10% Chthamalus overgrown by Balanus 3% undercut 1% crushed 2 MONTHS: 20% Chthamalus eliminated by Balanus Connell (1961) observed barnacles & investigated their interactions experimentally Competitive release Connell (1961) tested by removing one species and measure response of the other Chthalamus upper limit set by dessication, lower limit by Balanus Remove Balanus and Chthalamus speads lower down Remove Chthalamus and Balanus does not invade Balanus upper limit set by dessication, lower limit by starfish predation Remove predators and Balanus extends lower into the sea OUTCOME OF COMPETITION SPECIES 1 WINS SPECIES 2 WINS EITHER WINS - OUTCOME UNPREDICTABLE NEITHER WINS - COEXISTENCE Thomas Parks experiments with Tribolium . (flour beetles) (N1, N2) N1 Ν 2 Ν 1 wins N2 wins at 24 o , 70% RH N1 wins Ν 2 wins cool, dry hot, humid ?
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