after midterm post

after midterm post - Midterm Post hoc analysis...

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Midterm Post hoc analysis
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Argumentative Language 1. [6 pts] Which of the following describe sentences which are instances of argumentative language? a) claims that are known to be true or false by at least someone b) claims that are either true or false, but are no one knows which c) commands to perform a certain action d) exclamations expressing pain or shock e) claims about the value of a work of art f) questions or inquiries g) a claim that a certain type of action is unethical
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Argumentative Language Some things we say aren’t making claims Toulmin calls these instrumental uses of language. Asking questions, giving orders, expressing emotions, making requests, telling jokes, etc. An argumentative use of language is a use that makes a claim; that says that something is the case or is not the case.
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Argumentative Language Argumentative language turns out to be everywhere To support a new scientific hypothesis To support a political cause or candidate To make a case in court To make moral judgments To convince your friends to watch the movie you want to watch, or go where you want to for dinner To make a judgment about a band To report trivia or news To make explanations
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Argumentative Language 1. [6 pts] Which of the following describe sentences which are instances of argumentative language? a) claims that are known to be true or false by at least someone b) claims that are either true or false, but are no one knows which c) commands to perform a certain action d) exclamations expressing pain or shock e) claims about the value of a work of art f) questions or inquiries g) a claim that a certain type of action is unethical
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Validity 5. [7 pts] If one of the premises of an argument is contingent, how do we know whether the argument is valid? a) We have to go out and discover the truth value of the contingent premise. b) We analyze the inferential relation between the premises and the conclusion. c) We check to see whether the contingent premise is consistent with the other premises, and with the conclusion. d) Contingencies are sometimes false, so the argument cannot be valid.
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Validity There are two ways an argument can be good (or bad) Inferential structure Truth of the premises A deductive argument that has a good interferential structure, that succeeds in providing necessary support for its conclusion, is valid .
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Validity Condition for validity: If an argument’s premises are true, it’s conclusion must be true. Or (equivalently) it will never be the case that the premises are true and the conclusion is false. P: True P: True …. C: False Ask yourself if this combination is possible. If it is, than the argument is Not Valid. If it is impossible , than the argument is valid .
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Validity Validity does not depend on the actual truth of premises; it is an assessment of inferential structure.
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