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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 01 - Limits, Alternatives, and Choices CHAPTER ONE LIMITS, ALTERNATIVES, AND CHOICES CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter begins with a discussion of the meaning and importance of economics. In this first chapter, however, we will not plunge into problems and issues; instead we consider some important preliminaries. We first look at the economic perspectivehow economists think about problems. Next, we examine the specific methods economists use to examine economic behavior and the economy, including distinguishing between macroeconomics and microeconomics. We then look at the economizing problem from both an individual and societal perspective. For the individual we develop the budget line, for society the production possibilities model. In our discussion of production possibilities, the concepts of opportunity costs and increasing opportunity costs, unemployment, growth, and present vs. future possibilities are all demonstrated. Finally, in the Last Word, some of the problems, limitations, and pitfalls that hinder sound economic reasoning are examined. The Appendix to Chapter 1 provides an important introduction to graphical analysis. While this will be review material for most students, for some this may be new. Instructors are strongly urged to confirm that their students understand this section before proceeding. The software supplement can provide effective remedial help for those students who are not familiar with graphical analysis, or just need a refresher. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, students should be able to: 1. Define economics. 2. Describe the economic way of thinking, including definitions of purposeful behavior, utility, opportunity costs, marginal costs, marginal benefits and how these concepts may be used in decision-making. 3. Explain how economists use the scientific method to formulate economic principles. 4. Explain the importance of ceteris paribus in formulating economic principles. 5. Explain the steps used by policy makers. 6. Differentiate between micro- and macroeconomics. 7. Differentiate between positive and normative economics. 8. Explain the economizing problem from the individuals perspective 9. Construct and explain a budget line. 10. Describe the economizing problem facing society. 11. Identify types of economic resources and types of income associated with various factors. 12. Construct a production possibilities curve when given appropriate data. 13. Illustrate economic growth, unemployment and underemployment of resources, and increasing costs using a production possibilities curve. 14. Give some real-world applications of the production possibilities concept. 15. Summarize the general relationship between investment and economic growth....
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- Spring '09