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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 20 - Income Inequality, Poverty, and Discrimination CHAPTER TWENTY INCOME INEQUALITY, POVERTY, AND DISCRIMINATION CHAPTER OVERVIEW The statistical information, analytical concepts, and discussions of public policy alternatives can help students find their way through the maze of controversial topics and issues concerning income distribution and poverty. The chapter begins by surveying some basic facts concerning the distribution of income in the United States and the Lorenz Curve that gives a graphic representation of the distribution. Next, the major causes of income inequality are considered, as well as historical trend information. Third, the debate over income inequality and the tradeoff between equality and efficiency implied by this debate is examined. Fourth, the poverty problem in America is analyzed. Finally, discrimination is analyzed. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, students should be able to: 1. Describe the distribution of income in the United States by personal income categories by households and quintile distribution by households. 2. Explain how a Lorenz curve is used to describe income inequality. 3. Explain how a Gini ratio measures income inequality and is related to the Lorenz curve. 4. Discuss the impact of income mobility on income distribution data. 5. Explain the broadened concept of income, which includes the effects of taxes and transfer payments, and how this affects the extent of inequality of income and poverty in the U.S. 6. List seven causes of an unequal income distribution. 7. Describe changes and causes for the changes in inequality since 1970. 8. State and evaluate the cases for and against income inequality, using the equality vs. efficiency argument. 9. Define poverty as the Federal government does. 10. Identify the rate of poverty in the U.S., and the incidence of poverty for various demographic groups, including African-Americans, Hispanics, and female-headed households; identify some of the reasons for the poverty of each group. 11. Identify the measurement issues that can make interpretation of poverty data difficult. 12. Contrast social insurance and public assistance (welfare) programs. 13. Describe the major social insurance programs. 14. Describe and evaluate the major public assistance (welfare) programs. 15. Explain the differences between social insurance programs and public assistance programs. 16. Describe and evaluate the goals and conflicts inherent in public assistant programs. 17. Explain the criticisms of the old welfare system. 18. Describe the major provisions of the Personal Responsibility Act of 1996. 19. Define and identify terms and concepts listed at the end of the chapter....
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This note was uploaded on 07/27/2010 for the course ECON 0453 taught by Professor Dongwahu during the Spring '09 term at Shoreline.
- Spring '09