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Answer Key 1 - Chapter 1 NAME The Market Introduction The...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 NAME The Market Introduction. The problems in this chapter examine some variations on the apartment market described in the text. In most of the problems we work with the true demand curve constructed from the reservation prices of the consumers rather than the “smoothed” demand curve that we used in the text. Remember that the reservation price of a consumer is that price where he is just indifferent between renting or not renting the apartment. At any price below the reservation price the consumer will demand one apartment, at any price above the reservation price the consumer will demand zero apartments, and exactly at the reservation price the consumer will be indifferent between having zero or one apartment. You should also observe that when demand curves have the “staircase” shape used here, there will typically be a range of prices where supply equals demand. Thus we will ask for the the highest and lowest price in the range. 1.1 (3) Suppose that we have 8 people who want to rent an apartment. Their reservation prices are given below. (To keep the numbers small, think of these numbers as being daily rent payments.) Person Price =A = 40 B 25 CD 30 35 E 10 F 18 G 15 H 5 (a) Plot the market demand curve in the following graph. (Hint: When the market price is equal to some consumer i’s reservation price, there will be two different quantities of apartments demanded, since consumer i will be indifferent between having or not having an apartment.) 2 THE MARKET (Ch. 1) Price 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 67 8 Apartments (b) Suppose the supply of apartments is fixed at 5 units. In this case there is a whole range of prices that will be equilibrium prices. What is the highest price that would make the demand for apartments equal to 5 units? $18. $15. A, B, C, D. $10 to $15. (c) What is the lowest price that would make the market demand equal to 5 units? (d) With a supply of 4 apartments, which of the people A–H end up getting apartments? (e) What if the supply of apartments increases to 6 units. What is the range of equilibrium prices? 1.2 (3) Suppose that there are originally 5 units in the market and that 1 of them is turned into a condominium. (a) Suppose that person A decides to buy the condominium. What will be the highest price at which the demand for apartments will equal the supply of apartments? What will be the lowest price? Enter your answers in column A, in the table. Then calculate the equilibrium prices of apartments if B , C , . . . , decide to buy the condominium. NAME 7 2.1 (0) You have an income of $40 to spend on two commodities. Commodity 1 costs $10 per unit, and commodity 2 costs $5 per unit. (a) Write down your budget equation. 10x1 + 5x2 = 40. (b) If you spent all your income on commodity 1, how much could you buy? 4. 8. Use blue ink to draw your budget line in the graph (c) If you spent all of your income on commodity 2, how much could you buy? below. x2 8 6 4 2 ;;;;;; ;;;;;; Line Blue ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; Red Line ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;Black Shading ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; Black Line ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; Blue ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; Shading ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;; 2 4 6 8 x1 0 (d) Suppose that the price of commodity 1 falls to $5 while everything else stays the same. Write down your new budget equation. 5x1 +5x2 = 40. On the graph above, use red ink to draw your new budget line. (e) Suppose that the amount you are allowed to spend falls to $30, while the prices of both commodities remain at $5. Write down your budget equation. line. 5x1 + 5x2 = 30. Use black ink to draw this budget (f ) On your diagram, use blue ink to shade in the area representing commodity bundles that you can afford with the budget in Part (e) but could not afford to buy with the budget in Part (a). Use black ink or pencil to shade in the area representing commodity bundles that you could afford with the budget in Part (a) but cannot afford with the budget in Part (e). 2.2 (0) On the graph below, draw a budget line for each case. 8 BUDGET CONSTRAINT (Ch. 2) (a) p1 = 1, p2 = 1, m = 15. (Use blue ink.) (b) p1 = 1, p2 = 2, m = 20. (Use red ink.) (c) p1 = 0, p2 = 1, m = 10. (Use black ink.) (d) p1 = p2 , m = 15p1 . (Use pencil or black ink. Hint: How much of good 1 could you afford if you spend your entire budget on good 1?) x2 20 15 Blue Line = Pencil Line Black Line 10 5 Red Line 0 5 10 15 20 x1 2.3 (0) Your budget is such that if you spend your entire income, you can afford either 4 units of good x and 6 units of good y or 12 units of x and 2 units of y . (a) Mark these two consumption bundles and draw the budget line in the graph below. y 16 12 8 4 0 4 8 12 16 x NAME 9 (b) What is the ratio of the price of x to the price of y ? 1/2. (c) If you spent all of your income on x, how much x could you buy? 16. (d) If you spent all of your income on y , how much y could you buy? 8. (e) Write a budget equation that gives you this budget line, where the price of x is 1. x + 2y = 16. 3x + 6y = 48. (f ) Write another budget equation that gives you the same budget line, but where the price of x is 3. 2.4 (1) Murphy was consuming 100 units of X and 50 units of Y . The price of X rose from 2 to 3. The price of Y remained at 4. (a) How much would Murphy’s income have to rise so that he can still exactly afford 100 units of X and 50 units of Y ? $100. 2.5 (1) If Amy spent her entire allowance, she could afford 8 candy bars and 8 comic books a week. She could also just afford 10 candy bars and 4 comic books a week. The price of a candy bar is 50 cents. Draw her budget line in the box below. What is Amy’s weekly allowance? $6. Comic books 32 24 16 8 0 8 12 16 24 32 Candy bars 10 BUDGET CONSTRAINT (Ch. 2) 2.6 (0) In a small country near the Baltic Sea, there are only three commodities: potatoes, meatballs, and jam. Prices have been remarkably stable for the last 50 years or so. Potatoes cost 2 crowns per sack, meatballs cost 4 crowns per crock, and jam costs 6 crowns per jar. (a) Write down a budget equation for a citizen named Gunnar who has an income of 360 crowns per year. Let P stand for the number of sacks of potatoes, M for the number of crocks of meatballs, and J for the number of jars of jam consumed by Gunnar in a year. 2P + 4M + 6J = 360. (b) The citizens of this country are in general very clever people, but they are not good at multiplying by 2. This made shopping for potatoes excruciatingly difficult for many citizens. Therefore it was decided to introduce a new unit of currency, such that potatoes would be the numeraire. A sack of potatoes costs one unit of the new currency while the same relative prices apply as in the past. In terms of the new currency, what is the price of meatballs? 2 crowns. 3 (c) In terms of the new currency, what is the price of jam? crowns. (d) What would Gunnar’s income in the new currency have to be for him to be exactly able to afford the same commodity bundles that he could afford before the change? 180 crowns. P + 2M + 3J = (e) Write down Gunnar’s new budget equation. 180. No. Is Gunnar’s budget set any different than it was before the change? 2.7 (0) Edmund Stench consumes two commodities, namely garbage and punk rock video cassettes. He doesn’t actually eat the former but keeps it in his backyard where it is eaten by billy goats and assorted vermin. The reason that he accepts the garbage is that people pay him $2 per sack for taking it. Edmund can accept as much garbage as he wishes at that price. He has no other source of income. Video cassettes cost him $6 each. (a) If Edmund accepts zero sacks of garbage, how many video cassettes can he buy? 0. NAME 11 (b) If he accepts 15 sacks of garbage, how many video cassettes can he buy? 5. 6C − 2G = 0. (c) Write down an equation for his budget line. (d) Draw Edmund’s budget line and shade in his budget set. Garbage 20 15 10 5 ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;Budget Line ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; Set Budget ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; 5 10 15 20 Video cassettes 0 2.8 (0) If you think Edmund is odd, consider his brother Emmett. Emmett consumes speeches by politicians and university administrators. He is paid $1 per hour for listening to politicians and $2 per hour for listening to university administrators. (Emmett is in great demand to help fill empty chairs at public lectures because of his distinguished appearance and his ability to refrain from making rude noises.) Emmett consumes one good for which he must pay. We have agreed not to disclose what that good is, but we can tell you that it costs $15 per unit and we shall call it Good X . In addition to what he is paid for consuming speeches, Emmett receives a pension of $50 per week. Administrator speeches 100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 Politician speeches 12 BUDGET CONSTRAINT (Ch. 2) (a) Write down a budget equation stating those combinations of the three commodities, Good X , hours of speeches by politicians (P ), and hours of speeches by university administrators (A) that Emmett could afford to consume per week. 15X − 1P − 2A = 50. (b) On the graph above, draw a two-dimensional diagram showing the locus of consumptions of the two kinds of speeches that would be possible for Emmett if he consumed 10 units of Good X per week. 2.9 (0) Jonathan Livingstone Yuppie is a prosperous lawyer. He has, in his own words, “outgrown those confining two-commodity limits.” Jonathan consumes three goods, unblended Scotch whiskey, designer tennis shoes, and meals in French gourmet restaurants. The price of Jonathan’s brand of whiskey is $20 per bottle, the price of designer tennis shoes is $80 per pair, and the price of gourmet restaurant meals is $50 per meal. After he has paid his taxes and alimony, Jonathan has $400 a week to spend. (a) Write down a budget equation for Jonathan, where W stands for the number of bottles of whiskey, T stands for the number of pairs of tennis shoes, and M for the number of gourmet restaurant meals that he consumes. 20W + 80T + 50M = 400. (b) Draw a three-dimensional diagram to show his budget set. Label the intersections of the budget set with each axis. M 8 5 20 T W (c) Suppose that he determines that he will buy one pair of designer tennis shoes per week. What equation must be satisfied by the combinations of restaurant meals and whiskey that he could afford? 20W +50M = 320. 2.10 (0) Martha is preparing for exams in economics and sociology. She has time to read 40 pages of economics and 30 pages of sociology. In the same amount of time she could also read 30 pages of economics and 60 pages of sociology. NAME 13 (a) Assuming that the number of pages per hour that she can read of either subject does not depend on how she allocates her time, how many pages of sociology could she read if she decided to spend all of her time on sociology and none on economics? 150 pages. (Hint: You have two points on her budget line, so you should be able to determine the entire line.) (b) How many pages of economics could she read if she decided to spend all of her time reading economics? 50 pages. 2.11 (1) Harry Hype has $5,000 to spend on advertising a new kind of dehydrated sushi. Market research shows that the people most likely to buy this new product are recent recipients of M.B.A. degrees and lawyers who own hot tubs. Harry is considering advertising in two publications, a boring business magazine and a trendy consumer publication for people who wish they lived in California. Fact 1: Ads in the boring business magazine cost $500 each and ads in the consumer magazine cost $250 each. Fact 2: Each ad in the business magazine will be read by 1,000 recent M.B.A.’s and 300 lawyers with hot tubs. Fact 3: Each ad in the consumer publication will be read by 300 recent M.B.A.’s and 250 lawyers who own hot tubs. Fact 4: Nobody reads more than one ad, and nobody who reads one magazine reads the other. (a) If Harry spends his entire advertising budget on the business publication, his ad will be read by 10,000 recent M.B.A.’s and by 3,000 lawyers with hot tubs. (b) If he spends his entire advertising budget on the consumer publication, his ad will be read by lawyers with hot tubs. 6,000 recent M.B.A.’s and by 5,000 (c) Suppose he spent half of his advertising budget on each publication. His ad would be read by lawyers with hot tubs. 8,000 recent M.B.A.’s and by 4,000 (d) Draw a “budget line” showing the combinations of number of readings by recent M.B.A.’s and by lawyers with hot tubs that he can obtain if he spends his entire advertising budget. Does this line extend all the way to the axes? No. Sketch, shade in, and label the budget set, which includes all the combinations of MBA’s and lawyers he can reach if he spends no more than his budget. 20 PREFERENCES (Ch. 3) (k) Remember that Charlie’s indifference curve through the point (10, 10) has the equation xB = 100/xA . Those of you who know calculus will remember that the slope of a curve is just its derivative, which in this case is −100/x2 . (If you don’t know calculus, you will have to take our A word for this.) Find Charlie’s marginal rate of substitution at the point, (10, 10). −1. −4. (l) What is his marginal rate of substitution at the point (5, 20)? (m) What is his marginal rate of substitution at the point (20, 5)? (−.25). (n) Do the indifference curves you have drawn for Charlie exhibit diminishing marginal rate of substitution? Yes. 3.2 (0) Ambrose consumes only nuts and berries. Fortunately, he likes both goods. The consumption bundle where Ambrose consumes x1 units of nuts per week and x2 units of berries per week is written as (x1 , x2 ). The set of consumption bundles (x1 , x2 ) such that Ambrose is indifferent between (x1 , x2 ) and (1, 16) is the set of bundles such that x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0, √ and x2 = 20 − 4 x1 . The set of bundles (x1 , x2 ) such that (x1 , x2 ) ∼ √ (36, 0) is the set of bundles such that x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0 and x2 = 24 − 4 x1 . (a) On the graph below, plot several points that lie on the indifference curve that passes through the point (1, 16), and sketch this curve, using blue ink. Do the same, using red ink, for the indifference curve passing through the point (36, 0). (b) Use pencil to shade in the set of commodity bundles that Ambrose weakly prefers to the bundle (1, 16). Use red ink to shade in the set of all commodity bundles (x1 , x2 ) such that Ambrose weakly prefers (36, 0) to these bundles. Is the set of bundles that Ambrose prefers to (1, 16) a convex set? Yes. (c) What is the slope of Ambrose’s indifference curve at the point (9, 8)? (Hint: Recall from calculus the way to calculate the slope of a curve. If you don’t know calculus, you will have to draw your diagram carefully and estimate the slope.) −2/3. NAME 21 (d) What is the slope of his indifference curve at the point (4, 12)? −1. Berries 40 30 20 10 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Pencil Shading ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Red Curve ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Red ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Blue Curve ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Shading ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 10 20 30 40 Nuts ; 0 (e) What is the slope of his indifference curve at the point (9, 12)? at the point (4, 16)? −2/3 −1. (f ) Do the indifference curves you have drawn for Ambrose exhibit diminishing marginal rate of substitution? Yes. (g) Does Ambrose have convex preferences? Yes. 3.3 (0) Shirley Sixpack is in the habit of drinking beer each evening while watching “The Best of Bowlerama” on TV. She has a strong thumb and a big refrigerator, so she doesn’t care about the size of the cans that beer comes in, she only cares about how much beer she has. (a) On the graph below, draw some of Shirley’s indifference curves between 16-ounce cans and 8-ounce cans of beer. Use blue ink to draw these indifference curves. 22 PREFERENCES (Ch. 3) 8-ounce 8 6 Blue Lines 4 Red Lines 2 0 2 4 6 8 16-ounce (b) Lorraine Quiche likes to have a beer while she watches “Masterpiece Theatre.” She only allows herself an 8-ounce glass of beer at any one time. Since her cat doesn’t like beer and she hates stale beer, if there is more than 8 ounces in the can she pours the excess into the sink. (She has no moral scruples about wasting beer.) On the graph above, use red ink to draw some of Lorraine’s indifference curves. 3.4 (0) Elmo finds himself at a Coke machine on a hot and dusty Sunday. The Coke machine requires exact change—two quarters and a dime. No other combination of coins will make anything come out of the machine. No stores are open; no one is in sight. Elmo is so thirsty that the only thing he cares about is how many soft drinks he will be able to buy with the change in his pocket; the more he can buy, the better. While Elmo searches his pockets, your task is to draw some indifference curves that describe Elmo’s preferences about what he finds. NAME 23 Dimes 8 6 4 2 ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; Blue ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Red ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; shading ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; shading ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Black ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; lines ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; 2 4 6 8 Quarters 0 (a) If Elmo has 2 quarters and a dime in his pockets, he can buy 1 soft drink. How many soft drinks can he buy if he has 4 quarters and 2 dimes? 2. (b) Use red ink to shade in the area on the graph consisting of all combinations of quarters and dimes that Elmo thinks are just indifferent to having 2 quarters and 1 dime. (Imagine that it is possible for Elmo to have fractions of quarters or of dimes, but, of course, they would be useless in the machine.) Now use blue ink to shade in the area consisting of all combinations that Elmo thinks are just indifferent to having 4 quarters and 2 dimes. Notice that Elmo has indifference “bands,” not indifference curves. (c) Does Elmo have convex preferences between dimes and quarters? Yes. (d) Does Elmo always prefer more of both kinds of money to less? No. (e) Does Elmo have a bliss point? No. (f ) If Elmo had arrived at the Coke machine on a Saturday, the drugstore across the street would have been open. This drugstore has a soda fountain that will sell you as much Coke as you want at a price of 4 cents an ounce. The salesperson will take any combination of dimes and quarters in payment. Suppose that Elmo plans to spend all of the money in his pocket on Coke at the drugstore on Saturday. On the graph above, use pencil or black ink to draw one or two of Elmo’s indifference curves between quarters and dimes in his pocket. (For simplicity, draw your g...
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