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Inorganic Nomenclature

Inorganic Nomenclature - Appendix Naming Inorganic...

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Unformatted text preview: Appendix Naming Inorganic Compounds Introduction Nomenclature is the body of rules / standards chemists use to name compounds In this laboratory session, we will learn to name inorganic compounds. Most of the compounds we will encounter in this introductory chemistry course are inorganic compounds, which means their primary elemental component is not carbon. (Some inorganic compounds do, however, contain carbon). Organic compounds are those in which carbon and hydrogen are the primary elemental components. There are 2 categories of inorganic compounds: Ionic compounds are made of ions and held together by ionic bonds Molecular compounds are made of atoms held together by covalent bonds. Both classes of inorganic compounds have systematic rules for naming. Ionic Compounds A cation is an atom or group of atoms having an overall positive charge (+1, +2, +3, ...) An anion is an atom or group of atoms having an overall negative charge (-1, -2, -3, ...) ° generally, metals are cations (lose e‘) and nonmetals are anions (gain e‘) ° a polyatomic ion is a group of atoms which together have an overall charge Naming Ionic Compounds to name ionic compounds one must first be able to name ions CATIONS 0 Cations formed from single atoms are named according to the element name Atomic Symbol Element Name Ion Symbol Ion Name Ca + calcium ion Ca calcium Na sodium Na+ sodium ion Ag silver Ag+ silver ion CATIONS tcont'd) 0 Some transition metals are capable of forming several cations =» the charge is designated by the "stock" number in roman numerals and "0" You must learn which elements require this extra designation. (For help, see the list of common cations provided in this manual). Atomic Symbol Element Name Ion Symbol Ion Name Fe iron Fe + iron(ll) ion Fe3+ iron(III) ion Cu copper Cu+ copper(l) ion Cu2+ copper(II) ion Note: an older set of rules named the more positive ion with the suffix "—ic" and the less positive with the suffix "-ous" (Cu+U= cuprous ion; C112“ == cupric ion) Note the following polyatomic cations for which you must know the names NH + ammonium ion mercury(l) ion AbilQ—Nfi Anions formed from single atoms are named by dropping the elemental suffix and adding "—ide" Atomic Symbol Element Name Ion Symbol Ion Name Cl chlorine Cl‘ chloride ion P phosphorous P3 phosphide ion 0 oxygen 02’ oxide ion I iodine I‘ iodide ion ' Note that generally the naming of ions is consistent in a group (see Periodic Table and Cl'Uand I' in the example above). Polyatomic anions containing oxygen are called oxyanions. They are very common and are named according to the relative amount oxygen bound to a particular element. => If an element combines with oxygen in 2 ways, the anion is named by dropping the end of the element name and adding a suffix: the anion with more oxygen ends in "—ate" the anion with less oxygen ends in "-ite" => If an element combines with oxygen in 4 ways, the anion with the most oxygen is named by adding a suffix and dropping the end of the element name and adding a suffix: the anion with the most oxygen adds the prefix "per-" and ends in "—ate" the anion with next most oxygen ends in "-ate" (no prefix) the anion with next most oxygen ends in "-ite" (no prefix) the anion with the least oxygen adds the prefix "hypo-" and ends in "-ite" Ion Symbol Ion Name SO4 ' sulfate ion 8032' sulfite ion C10; perchlorate ion C10; chlorate ion ClOz' chlorite ion ClO' hypochlorite ion ° Note that generally elements within the same group in the periodic table form similar polyatomic ions and are named similarly. Forming Ionic Compounds 0 Ionic compounds are always neutral (have no charge). 0 The correct number of cations (with positive charge) and anions (with negative charge) must be combined to form a neutral compound (no charge). Example: 1 calcium ion (+2 charge) forms 2 ionic bonds with two chloride ions (-1 charge ea.) to form neutral calcium chloride ion #ians charge total cation Ca2+ 1 x (+2) = +2 anion Cl' 2 x H) = - 2 compound CaClz 0 = overall charge - If more than one polyatomic ion is needed to form a neutral compound, parentheses are used around the entire ion Mg(OH)2 1x Mg2+ plus 2x(OI-I') (NH4)ZSO4 2x (NHJ) plus 1x 5042‘ Naming Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds fall into several categories: SALTS, ACIDS, BASES AND METAL OXIDES Salts are compounds formed between a cation and an anion (Note: compounds containing H’“, OH‘, or 02’ are special cases and are not considered salts) Hydroxides are compounds formed between a cation and the hydroxide ion (OH') Metal oxides are compounds formed between a metal cation and the oxide ion (02') Acids are compounds formed between the hydrogen ion (I-I’", also called a proton) and an anion Naming Salts, Hydroxides and Metal Oxides These three types of compounds are named according to the same rules. 0 The name has 2 parts: the name of the cation, followed by the name of the anion. salt name hydroxide name NaCl sodium chloride NaOH sodium hydroxide NaZSO4 sodium sulfate NH40H ammonium hydroxide (NI-l4)2SO4 ammonium sulfate Fe(OH)2 iron(II) hydroxide Fe(CN)3 iron(III) cyanide Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide KCIOZ potassium chlorite CoBr2 cobalt(II) bromide metal oxide name K20 potassium oxide FeO iron(II) oxide Fe203 iron(III) oxide MgO magnesium oxide Naming Acids An acid may be defined as a compound which can produce a hydrogen ion if the ionic components of the compound dissociate (as might happen if the compound were dissolved in water) for example, HBr -+ H+ + Br~ Naming Acids (cont'd) - The names of all acids end in either “ous” or ”ic”. 0 For acids with a hydrogen ion bound to a simple anion (one formed from a single atom), the acid is named by adding the prefix "hydro-" to the anion's name, and changing the suffix to "-ic". HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid => An acid containing an -ide anion is a hydro-~15; acid. 0 For acids with a hydrogen ion bound to a polyatomic ion, the acid is named by changing the suffix of the anion name according to the following rules: HClO hypochlorgus acid (ClO' 2 hypochlorile ion) H2804 sulfuri_c acid (8042‘ = sulffig ion) HBrO4 perbromi_c acid (Bro; = perbromatg ion) => An acid containing an —i_t_e anion isan -ous acid. = An acid containing an —_a_t_e anion is an —i_(_: acid. There are certain organic acids that are quite common. They are: HC2H302 acetic acid HCHO formic acid H2C204 oxalic acid H2C4H406 tartaric acid Some common errors to avoid in naming acids are: 1. Do not capitalize names of compounds. HBr hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid (correct) (wrong) 2. The name of the acid is 9113 word. The word “acid” is a separate word. HBr hydrobromic acid (correct) hydro bromic acid (wrong) hydroBromic acid (wrong) Naming by systems system 1 Acid formula Acid name Formula Salt name HCl hydrochlori_c acid NaCl sodium chloride HCLO hypoclorgys acid NaCLO sodium hypochlorite HCLO2 chlorgm acid NaClO2 sodium chlori_t_e HCLO3 chlori_c acid NaCLO3 sodium chlorfie HCLO4 pgchlorig acid NaCLO4 sodium pgchlorgie system 2 Acid formula Acid name Formula Salt name H28 hydrosulfurig acid N azS sodium sulfi_d_§ H2303 sulfur_o_u§ acid Na2803 sodium sulfitg H2504 sulfuri_c acid NaZSO4 sodium sulfate P, As, and Sb all follow system 2 Note: salts are named the same from the acid regardless of system TABLES OF COMMON IONS These tables are only a representative sample of some of the more common ions. They are not complete lists of all ions nor do they show all the possible ions for some elements in the tables. COMMON CATIONS Simple cations: +1 hydrogen H+ +2 beryllium Be2+ litgium Li++ magnesium Mg:+ so ium Na ca cium Ca potassium K+ strontium Sr:+ b'd' Rb+ b ' B + :Zsiluilllm Cs+ czglittluam C312+ copper(l) Cu+ chromiumdl) Cr2+ gold(l) Au‘“ cobalt(ll) (302* silver Ag+ copper(II) (3112+ +3 aluminum Al3+ gig £2” antimony(lll) Sb3+ manganeseal) Mn2+ arsenic(III) As“ mercury(ll) H 2“ bismuth Bi3+ nickel Ni§+ chromiumflll) Cr3+ platinum Pt2+ cobalt(III) Co“ tin(lI) 3112* gold(lll) Au“ zinc Zn2+ iron(IlI) Fe“ 4+ +5 antimony(V) Sb: +4 lead(IV) Pb arsenic(V) As manganese(IV) Mn“ palladium(IV) Pd“ platinum(IV) Pt“ tin(lV) Sn Complex Cations: +1 ammonium NH + +2 mercuryfl) Hg (two H + 'oined into one ion) g l COMMON ANION S Simple Anions: -1 fluoride chloride bromide iodide Complex Anions: -1 acetate bicarbonate hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate bromate iodate periodate formate hydroxide nitrate nitrite cyanide permanganate Cl' Br‘ I" CZHBOZ. HCOa' C10” C10; C10 ' C10 ‘ IO ' oxide sulfide nitride phosphide carbonate chromate dichromate oxalate sulfate sulfite tartrate silicate phosphate phosphite arsenate arsenite borate 2. (3.4H406 Naming nonmetal, molecular compounds The combination of two non-metals is a molecular compound (they are held together by covalent bonds, rather than ionic bonds). These binary compounds are named according to different rules than ionic compounds. 0 name the first non-metal in the compound first, followed by the second non- metal named as if it were an anion (note however, that it is not an anion!) 0 use prefixes to designate the number of each non-metal atomin the formula 0 the prefix "mono" is not needed for the first non-metal in the compound if there is only one atom of that element in the formula prefixes: mono 1 penta 5 di 2 hexa 6 tri 3 hepta 7 tetra 4 octa 8 Examples: CO carbon monoxide PCl3 phosphorous trichloride N20 dinitrogen oxide SF 6 sulfur hexafluoride 1’205 diphosphorus pentoxide NOTE: Prefixes are NOT used when naming compounds made of cations & anions. ...
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