Principles of Economics- Mankiw (5th) 149

Principles of Economics- Mankiw (5th) 149 - AND MARKET...

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CHAPTER 7 CONSUMERS, PRODUCERS, AND THE EFFICIENCY OF MARKETS 155 outcome just as he finds it. This policy of leaving well enough alone goes by the French expression laissez-faire, which literally translated means “allow them to do.” We can now better appreciate Adam Smith’s invisible hand of the market- place, which we first discussed in Chapter 1. The benevolent social planner doesn’t need to alter the market outcome because the invisible hand has already guided buyers and sellers to an allocation of the economy’s resources that maximizes to- tal surplus. This conclusion explains why economists often advocate free markets as the best way to organize economic activity. QUICK QUIZ: Draw the supply and demand for turkey. In the equilibrium, show producer and consumer surplus. Explain why producing more turkey would lower total surplus. CONCLUSION: MARKET EFFICIENCY
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Unformatted text preview: AND MARKET FAILURE This chapter introduced the basic tools of welfare economicsconsumer and pro-ducer surplusand used them to evaluate the efficiency of free markets. We showed that the forces of supply and demand allocate resources efficiently. That is, Quantity Price Equilibrium quantity Supply Demand Cost to sellers Cost to sellers Value to buyers Value to buyers Value to buyers is greater than cost to sellers. Value to buyers is less than cost to sellers. Figure 7-8 T HE E FFICIENCY OF THE E QUILIBRIUM Q UANTITY . At quantities less than the equi-librium quantity, the value to buyers exceeds the cost to sellers. At quantities greater than the equilibrium quantity, the cost to sellers exceeds the value to buyers. Therefore, the market equilibrium maximizes the sum of producer and consumer surplus....
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2010 for the course ECON 120 taught by Professor Abijian during the Spring '10 term at Mesa CC.

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