Chapter02

Chapter02 - Jaeger/Blalock Microelectronic Circuit Design...

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Unformatted text preview: Jaeger/Blalock 4/15/07 Microelectronic Circuit Design, 3E McGraw-Hill Chap 2 - 1 Chapter 2 Solid-State Electronics Microelectronic Circuit Design Richard C. Jaeger Travis N. Blalock Jaeger/Blalock 4/15/07 Microelectronic Circuit Design, 3E McGraw-Hill Chap 2 - 2 Chapter Goals • Explore semiconductors and discover how engineers control semiconductor properties to build electronic devices. • Characterize resistivity of insulators, semiconductors, and conductors. • Develop covalent bond and energy band models for semiconductors. • Understand band gap ernergy and intrinsic carrier concentration. • Explore the behavior of electrons and holes in semiconductors. • Discuss acceptor and donor impurities in semiconductors. • Learn to control the electron and hole populations using impurity doping. • Understand drift and diffusion currents in semiconductors. • Explore low-Feld mobility and velocity saturation. • Jaeger/Blalock 4/15/07 Microelectronic Circuit Design, 3E McGraw-Hill Chap 2 - 2 Chapter Goals • Explore semiconductors and discover how engineers control semiconductor properties to build electronic devices. • Characterize resistivity of insulators, semiconductors, and conductors. • Develop covalent bond and energy band models for semiconductors. • Understand band gap ernergy and intrinsic carrier concentration. • Explore the behavior of electrons and holes in semiconductors. • Discuss acceptor and donor impurities in semiconductors. • Learn to control the electron and hole populations using impurity doping. • Understand drift and diffusion currents in semiconductors. • Explore low-Feld mobility and velocity saturation. • Discuss the dependence of mobility on doping level. Jaeger/Blalock 4/15/07 Microelectronic Circuit Design, 3E McGraw-Hill Chap 2 - 3 The Inventors of the Integrated Circuit Jack Kilby Andy Grove, Robert Noyce, and Gordon Moore with Intel 8080 layout. Jaeger/Blalock 4/15/07 Microelectronic Circuit Design, 3E McGraw-Hill Chap 2 - 4 The Kilby Integrated Circuit Semiconductor die Active device Electrical contacts Jaeger/Blalock 4/15/07 Microelectronic Circuit Design, 3E McGraw-Hill Chap 2 - 5 Solid-State Electronic Materials • Electronic materials fall into three categories: – Insulators Resistivity ( ρ ) > 10 5 Ω-cm – Semiconductors 10-3 < ρ < 10 5 Ω-cm – Conductors ρ < 10-3 Ω-cm • Elememental semiconductors are formed from a single type of atom, typically Silicon. • Compound semiconductors are formed from combinations of column III and V elements or columns II and VI. • Germanium was used in many early devices. • Silicon quickly replaced silicon due to its higher bandgap energy, lower cost, and is easily oxidized to form silicon- dioxide insulating layers. Jaeger/Blalock 4/15/07 Microelectronic Circuit Design, 3E McGraw-Hill Chap 2 - 6 Semiconductor Materials (cont.) Semiconductor Bandgap Energy E G (eV) Carbon (diamond) 5.47 Silicon 1.12 Germanium 0.66 Tin 0.082 Gallium arsenide...
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Chapter02 - Jaeger/Blalock Microelectronic Circuit Design...

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