Special_relativity

Special_relativity - Special Relativity A Wikibook

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Special Relativity A Wikibook http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special_relativity Second edition Part 1: Introductory text
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Cover photo: The XX-34 BADGER explosion on April 18, 1953, as part of Operation Upshot-Knothole, at the Nevada Test Site. The photo is from the Department of Energy, Nevada Site Office's Photo Library - Atmospheric, specifically XX34.JPG. Alternative source: http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/photos/photodetails.aspx?ID=1048
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Table of Contents Contributors. ...................................................................................................................... 2 Introduction. ....................................................................................................................... 3 Historical Development. ........................................................................................... 3 Intended Audience. ................................................................................................... 6 What's so special?. .................................................................................................... 7 Common Pitfalls in Relativity. ................................................................................. 7 A Word about Wiki. ................................................................................................. 8 The principle of relativity. ................................................................................................. 9 Special relativity. ...................................................................................................... 9 Frames of reference, events and transformations. .................................................. 10 The postulates of special relativity. ............................................................................. 12 Einstein's Relativity - the electrodynamic approach. ............................................. 13 Inertial reference frames. ............................................................................................ 14 The modern approach to special relativity. ...................................................................... 17 Spacetime. .............................................................................................................. 24 The lightcone. ......................................................................................................... 24 The Lorentz transformation equations. .................................................................. 26 A spacetime representation of the Lorentz Transformation. .................................. 27 More about the relativity of simultaneity. ....................................................................... 28 The Andromeda paradox. ....................................................................................... 30 The nature of length contraction. ........................................................................... 31 More about time dilation. ....................................................................................... 33 The twin paradox. ................................................................................................... 33 Jim and Bill's view of the journey. ......................................................................... 37 The Pole-barn paradox. .......................................................................................... 40 Evidence for length contraction, the field of an infinite straight current. .............. 41 De Broglie waves. .................................................................................................. 44 Bell's spaceship paradox. ........................................................................................ 45 The transverse Doppler effect. ............................................................................... 47 Relativistic transformation of angles. ..................................................................... 47 Addition of velocities. ............................................................................................ 48 Relativistic Dynamics. ..................................................................................................... 51 Momentum. ................................................................................................................. 51 Force. ........................................................................................................................... 55 Energy. ........................................................................................................................ 56 Derivation of relativistic energy using relativistic momentum. ............................. 56 Derivation of relativistic energy using the concept of relativistic mass. ................ 58 Nuclear Energy. .......................................................................................................... 60 Light propagation and the aether. .................................................................................... 62 The aether drag hypothesis. ........................................................................................ 62 The Michelson-Morley experiment. ........................................................................... 66 Measuring aether. ................................................................................................... 67 The experiments. .................................................................................................... 67 Fallout. .................................................................................................................... 71 Mathematical analysis of the Michelson Morley Experiment. ................................... 72 Coherence length. ................................................................................................... 75 Lorentz-Fitzgerald Contraction Hypothesis. .......................................................... 76 1
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Appendix 1. ...................................................................................................................... 78 Mathematics of the Lorentz Transformation Equations. ........................................ 78 Einstein's original approach. .................................................................................. 81 License. ............................................................................................................................ 84 GNU Free Documentation License. ............................................................................ 84 0. PREAMBLE. .......................................................................................................... 84 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS. .............................................................. 84 2. VERBATIM COPYING. ........................................................................................ 85 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY. ................................................................................... 85 4. MODIFICATIONS. ................................................................................................ 85 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS. ............................................................................... 86 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS. .................................................................... 86 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS. ........................................... 86 8. TRANSLATION. .................................................................................................... 86 9. TERMINATION. .................................................................................................... 87 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE. ....................................................... 87 Contributors RobinH, Moriconne, Tikai, Mwhizz, EvanR, Mglg, Read-write-services and many others, including some excerpts from Wikipedia (Wikipedia also contains some execerpts from this book). 2
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Introduction The Special Theory of Relativity was developed at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. It entirely replaced older physical theories such as Newtonian Physics and led to early Quantum Theory and General Relativity.
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Special_relativity - Special Relativity A Wikibook

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