Chapter 18 Lecture 3

Chapter 18 Lecture 3 - Brnsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition...

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Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition An acid is a proton donor, any species which donates a H + . A base is a proton acceptor, any species which accepts a H + . An acid and a base always work together in the transfer of a proton An acid-base reaction can now be viewed from the standpoint of the reactants AND the products. An acid-base reaction is a proton-transfer process An acid reactant will produce a base product and the two will constitute an acid-base conjugate pair . 18-26
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Proton transfer as the essential feature of a Brønsted-Lowry acid- base reaction. Lone pair binds H + (acid, H + donor) (base, H + acceptor) Lone pair binds H + (base, H + acceptor) (acid, H + donor) mmonium 18-27 ammonia H 2 O (and many other species) are amphoteric! ammonium
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able 18 4 The Conjugate Pairs in Some Acid ase Reactions Table 18.4 The Conjugate Pairs in Some Acid-Base Reactions ase cid cid ase Conjugate Pair Base Acid + Acid Base + Conjugate Pair Reaction 1 HF H 2 O + F - H 3 O + + Reaction 2 HCOOH CN - + HCOO - HCN + Reaction 4 H 2 PO 4 - OH - + Reaction 3 NH 4 + CO 3 2- + NH 3 HCO 3 - + HPO 4 2- H 2 O + Reaction 5 H 2 SO 4 N 2 H 5 + + Reaction 6 HPO 2- SO 2- + HSO 4 - N 2 H 6 2+ + PO 3- HSO - + 18-28 4 3 4 3
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Sample Problem Identifying Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs PROBLEM: The following reactions are important environmental processes. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs. (a) H 2 PO 4 - ( aq ) + CO 3 2- ( aq ) HPO 4 2- ( aq ) + HCO 3 - ( aq ) (b) H 2 O( l ) + SO 3 2- ( aq ) OH - ( aq ) + HSO 3 - ( aq ) OLUTION: PLAN: Identify proton donors (acids) and proton acceptors (bases). ) O - q +CO - q H P O - q + HCO - q conjugate pair 1 conjugate pair 2 SOLUTION: (a) H 2 PO 4 ( aq ) + CO 3 2 ( aq ) HPO 4 2 ( aq ) + HCO 3 ( aq ) proton donor proton acceptor proton acceptor proton donor (b) H 2 O( l ) + SO
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Chapter 18 Lecture 3 - Brnsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition...

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