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Chapter_23_Lecture 2 - Trends of Transition Elements Across...

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Trends of Transition Elements Across a Period Transition elements exhibit smaller, less regular changes in size, electronegativity, and first ionization energy Atomic Size General overall decrease across a period As the “d” orbitals are filled across a period, the change in atomic size within the transition elements evens out because atomic size within the transition elements evens out because the increased nuclear charge shields the outer electrons preventing them from spreading out Transition Metals 23-9
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Electronegativity Electronegativity generally increases across period Change in electronegativity within a series (period) is relatively small in keeping with the relatively small change in size Small electronegativity change in transition elements is in contrast with the steeper increase between the main group elements across a period Magnitude of Electronegativity in transition elements is similar to the larger main-group metals to the larger main group metals Transition Metals 23-10
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Ionization Energy Ionization Energy of Period 4 Main-group elements rise steeply from left to right as the electrons become more difficult to remove from the poorly shielded increasing nuclear charge, i.e., no “d” electrons In the transition metals, however, the first ionization energies increase relatively little because of the effective shielding by increase relatively little because of the effective shielding by the inner “d” electrons reducing the effect of the increased nuclear charge Transition Metals 23-11
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Trends Within a Group Transition Metals Main Group Metals Main Group Non-metals Inner Transition Metals Order of Sublevel Orbital Filling 23-12
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Trends Within (down) a Group: Atom Size Increases, as expected, from Period 4 to 5 No increase from Period 5 to 6 Lanthanides with buried “4f” sublevel orbitals appear between Lanthanides with buried 4f sublevel orbitals appear between the 4d (period 5) and 5d (period 6) series An element in Period 6 is separated from the one above it in Period 5 by 32 electrons The extra shrinking that results from the increased nuclear charge due to the addition of the fourteen 4f electrons is called the: Lanthanide Contraction 23-13
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Electronegativity (EN) EN – Relative ability of an atom in a covalent bond to attract shared electrons EN in transition elements is opposite the trend in main-group elements EN increases from period 4 to period 5 No change from period 5 to period 6, since the change in volume is small and Z ff increases (f orbital electrons) eff Transition metals exhibit more covalent bonding and attract electrons more strongly than main-group metals 23-14
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Trends Within (down) a Group: First Ionization Energy and Density The first ionization energy increases down a group due to the relatively small due to the relatively small increase in size and the relatively large increase in nuclear charge Densities increase Densities increase dramatically as atomic
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