2 nutrition and digestion final final

2 nutrition and digestion final final - Biology 5B...

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Biology 5B Nutrition and Digestion Overview: The Need to Feed The subject of how and when food is ingested, taken apart, and assimilated is called animal nutrition In general, animals fall into three categories: --Carnivores eat other animals --Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and algae) --Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter
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CONCEPT: An animal’s diet must supply chemical energy, organic molecules, and essential nutrients An animal’s diet provides chemical energy, which is converted into ATP and powers processes in the body Animals need a source of organic carbon and organic nitrogen in order to construct organic molecules 4 classes of Essential nutrients are required by cells and must be obtained from dietary sources Essential amino acids Essential fatty acids Vitamins Minerals Essential Amino Acids --Animals require 20 amino acids. They can synthesize about half of them --The remaining essential amino acids , must be obtained from food --A diet that is insufficient in essential amino acids causes malnutrition called protein deficiency --Individuals who eat only plant proteins need to eat specific plant combinations to get all essential amino acids Beans and other legumes Corn (maize) and other grains Lysine Essential amino acids for adult humans Tryptophan Isoleucine Leucine Phenylalanine Threonine Valine Methionine
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Essential Fatty Acids Animals can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need The essential fatty acids are certain unsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained from the diet Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts (see table 41.1 for a list) 13 vitamins essential to humans have been identified Vitamins are grouped into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble. These are digested and absorbed in different ways Minerals are simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts (see table 41.2 for a list)
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Dietary Deficiencies Animals will generally chose food that, when available, meets their daily dietary needs. If not they can become either undernourished or malnourished: Undernourishment is the result of a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires Malnourishment is the long-term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients This animal is trying to obtain calcium from a discarded antler. Is that undernourishment or malnourishment?
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CONCEPT: The main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination Ingestion is the act of eating (there are 4 types of feeders) 1. Suspension Feeders 2. Substrate Feeders 3. Fluid Feeders 4. Bulk Feeders Ingestion Digestion Absorption Elimination Undigested material Chemical digestion (enzymatic hydrolysis) Nutrient molecules enter body cells Small molecules Mechanical digestion Food Pieces of food 1 2 3 4 1. Suspension Feeders Many aquatic animals are suspension feeders , which sift small food particles from the water Humpback whale, a suspension feeder Baleen
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2. Substrate Feeders
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2010 for the course BIOL005C BIOL005C taught by Professor Walton during the Spring '08 term at UC Riverside.

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2 nutrition and digestion final final - Biology 5B...

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