Ch 12, 14, 15

Ch 12, 14, 15 - The
Polished
Stones
 • ...

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Unformatted text preview: The
Polished
Stones
 •  Mathema1cs
educa1on:
Japan,
Taiwan
 •  Academic
mo1va1on
 –  Mastery
vs.
Performance
Orienta1on
 –  En1ty
vs.
Incremental
Model
of
Intelligence
 •  En1ty:
a
quality
of
which
a
person
has
a
certain
amount
 •  Incremental:
can
grow
as
one
learns
and
has
new
 experiences
 Mo1va1on
to
Learn
 Two
paFerns
 –  Mastery
orienta,on:
Remain

 op1mis1c
if
they
have
failed
and
tell

 themselves,
“I
can
do
it
if
I
try
harder

 next
1me”
 •  academic
success
depends
on
effort
 •  succeed
in
long‐run,
advanced
learning
strategies,
relate
to
prior
knowledge
 –  Performance
orienta,on:
When
they
fail,
they
tell
themselves
“I
just
can’t
do
 that”
and
give
up
trying
altogether
 •  academic
success
depends
primarily
on
ability
 •  may
give
up
aQer
failure,
avoid
similar
tasks
in
the
future
 –  Not
related
to
IQ
scores
or
academic
achievement
 –  Cultural
differences
(Asia
vs.
U.S.)
 Schooling
 • Required
by
law
from
ages
 of
about
6
to
16
 – 9+
months/year,
5+
days/ week,
5‐7
hours/day
 – By
adulthood,
Americans

 spend
15,000+
hours
in

 classroom
seangs
 Appren1ceships
 •  Instruc1on
and
 produc1ve
labor
 combined
 •  From
the
beginning,
 appren1ces
 contribute
to
the
 work
process
 • School
contexts
play
a

 central
role
in
defining

 children’s
characteris1cs

 in
middle
childhood
 Schooling
(vs.
Appren1ceship)
 •  Mo,va,on:

 –  Students
must
work
for
years
(at
rela1vely
boring
tasks)
to
perfect
their
 skills
before
they
can
put
knowledge
to
use
in
meaningful
adult
work
 •  Social
rela,ons:

 –  Teachers
have
a
carefully
restricted
role‐‐
separates
educa1on
from
 kinship
and
economic
obliga1ons
 •  Social
organiza,on:

 –  large
room
in
the
company
of
other
children
of
about
same
age

 –  only
one
adult
 –  expected
to
work
individually
rather
than
coopera1vely
 •  Medium
of
instruc,on:

 –  acquire
skills
and
knowledge
through
the
manipula1on
of
wriFen







 symbols,
oQen
detached
from
real‐world
applica1on
 Instruc1onal
Discourse
 •  A
dis1nc1ve
way
of
talking
and
thinking
that
is
 typical
in
school
but
rarely
encountered
in
 everyday
interac1ons
in
the
community
or
home.
 –  Except
those
in
highly
schooled
contexts.

 •  “Recita1on
script”
 •  Ini1a1on‐reply‐feedback
sequence
 –  Known‐answer
ques1on
 Cultural
Styles
 Schooling
can
improve
certain
 aspects
of
cogni1ve
performance
by:
 •  Increasing
children’s
knowledge
base,
including
ways
of
 using
language
 •  Teaching
specific
informa1on‐processing
strategies
that
 are
relevant
primarily
to
school
 –  Memory
strategies!

 •  Changing
children’s
overall
life
situa1ons
and
aatudes
 –  which
they
pass
on
to
their
children
in
the
form
of
new
child‐ rearing
prac,ces
that
promote
par1cular
cogni1ve
developments
 Adolescence
 From Latin adelesco – “to grow up” •  Gap
separa1ng
the
onset
of
sexual
maturity
 from
the
social
changes
that
confer
adult
status
 •  Lasts
7‐9
years
in
most
industrialized
socie1es
 •  A
1me
in
which
 –  Social
rela1ons
are
being
restructured
 –  Increased
independencefrom
parents
 –  Profound
changes
in
the
way
they
think
 about
themselves
and
the
world
 Video
‐
Adolescence
 •  Biological
 •  Cogni1ve

 •  Moral
 Developmental
Impact
of
Puberty
 •  During
adolescence,
girls
gain
24+
lbs.
of
 body
fat
(boys
lose
fat)
 –  Media
portrays
the
ideal
woman
with
a
thin,
 pre‐pubertal
body
shape
 •  many
adolescent
girls
are
dissa1sfied
with
their
 body
image
 •  can
lead
to
ea1ng
disorders
 –  In
industrialized
countries,
age
of
menarche
 has
been
decreasing‐
WHY?
 •  (Stress;
Physical
ac1vity)
 Developmental
Impact
of
Puberty
 Early
matura,on
 –  Boys:

 •  Some
social
advantage
(athle1cs,
popularity),

 •  but
less
intellectually
curious,
more
anxious,
lower
self‐control
 •  more
likely
to
smoke,
drink,
use
drugs,
and
get
in
trouble
with
the
 law
 –  Girls:

 •  Some
social
pres1ge
(aFrac1veness,
popularity),

 •  but
decline
in
academic
performance,
problem
behaviors,
lower
 emo1onal
stability
(depression)
 •  more
likely
to
be
in
a
sexual
rela1onship
by
mid‐adolescence
(have
 children
at
younger
ages
and
complete
fewer
years
of
school)

 Features
of
Adolescent
Thought

 Differences
from
middle
childhood.
 Hypothe,cal
reasoning
 Metacogni,ve
thinking
 Begin
to
make
decisions
by
first
 considering
the
range
of
possibili1es
 Systema,cally
generate
and
test
 hypotheses

 Think
about
situa1ons
that
are
contrary
to
 fact
 Thinking
about
one’s
own
thinking
is
 more
complex

 Think
more
deeply
about
others’
 points
of
view
 Rethink
issues
of
social
rela1on,

 Leads
to
idealism
and
a
search
for
 heroes
 Thinking
about
conven,onal
limits
 Forward
thinking
 Adolescents
are
beLer
able
to
plan
ahead
 in
more
detail
 In
comparison
to
adults,
 Less
likely
to:
consider
op1ons,
consequences,
risks
and
benefits.
 Piaget’s
Stages
of
Thinking
 Infancy
(Birth‐2):
Sensorimotor

 Early
childhood
(2‐6):
Preopera,onal
 Middle
childhood
(6‐12):
Concrete
Opera,onal
 Adolescence
(12‐19):
Formal
Opera,onal
 Formal
Opera1ons
 •  Think
systema1cally

 about
all
logical
rela1ons

 within
a
problem
 •  interest
in
abstract
ideas

 and
in
the
process
of
thinking

 •  Examples
 –  Interested
in
universal
ethical
principles
and
cri1cal
of
 adults’
hypocrisies
 –  “combina1on‐of‐variables”
problems
indicate
 systema1c
problem‐solving
 Piaget’s
“combina1on‐of‐variables”
problems
 Formal
Opera1ons
 •  Reasoning
by
Logical
 Necessity
 –  Begins
to
appear
around
6th
 grade
(ages
11‐12)…
 –  Lots
of
varia1on
in
when
 and
under
what
 circumstances
it
is
displayed
 A
deduc1ve
reasoning
problem
 In
the
Far
North
all
bears
 are
white.
 Zemlya
is
in
the
Far
 North.
 What
color
are
the
bears
 there?
 Reasoning
by
Logical
Necessity
 •  Cultural
varia1on
in
formal
opera1ons
 •  Deduc1ve
logic
is
improved
with
 –  Demonstra1on
and
coached
prac1ce
 –  Working
on
task
coopera1vely

 –  Familiar
materials
 •  Schooled
people
perform
beFer
 Changing
Parent‐Child
Rela1ons
 •  Generally,
adolescents
become
more
distant
from
 parents
and
more
likely
to
turn
to
their
peers
for
advice
 (par1cularly
when
they
perceive
their
parents
 becoming
stricter
as
they
progressed
into
adolescence)
 –  Frequency
of
conflict
between
adolescents
and
 parents
is
highest
early
in
adolescence
and
then
 decreases
 –  Intensity
of
the
conflicts
between
adolescents
and
 parents
increases
from
early
to
mid‐adolescence
 before
declining
 •  household
responsibili1es,
privileges,
da1ng,
 athle1cs,
financial
independence,
“personal
 space”
 •  Generally
agree:
Religion
 The
Iden1ty
Puzzle
 Erik
Erikson
 •  Adolescence
is
the
1me
when
individuals
must
ini1ate
the
 process
of
iden,ty
forma,on,
aFemp1ng
to
resolve
their

 iden1ty
in
both

 the
personal
and

 social
spheres
in

 order
to
form
an

 •  Search
for
one’s
“true
self”
 adult
iden1ty
 –
one
of
the
dominant
 developmental
tasks
of
 adolescence
 •  Must
resolve
 –  How
they
judge
others
 –  How
others
judge
them
 –  How
they
judge
the
 judgment
processes
of
 others
 Resolving
the
Iden1ty
Crisis
 •  Iden1ty
forma1on
 aFained
via
two
 processes…
 –  Crisis/explora,on
 –  Commitment
 •  Influenced
both
by
 immediate
family
 and
peers
 Marcia,
1996
 Four
states
of
adolescent
iden1ty
forma1on
 proposed
by
Marcia
 Explora1on
‐
related
to
iden1ty
achievement
 But,
commitment
seems
important
also:
 • 
Dutch
adolescents
‐
commitment
related
to
sa1sfac1on
and
iden1ty
 achievement
 Ethnic
Iden,ty


 Who
am
I
in
a
mul1cultural
society?
 Stages
 •  Unexamined
ethnic
iden1ty
(whites
tend
to
be
here)
 •  Ethnic
iden1ty
search
‐
realiza1on
of
ethnic
group,
concern
for
 personal
implica1ons
 •  Ethnic
iden1ty
achievement
 •  Language,
peers
who
share
heritage,
parents
support
cultural
 tradi1ons,
ethnic
pride
 Sexual
Iden,ty
 Who
am
I
as
a
sexual
being?
 ...
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