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Unformatted text preview: MCB 181 Spring 2009 Dr. S. Jorstad FINAL REVIEW Topic 1: Nature of Science 1. What is science? o Science is composed of facts, laws, hypothesis and theories. Science cannot prove anything it can only disprove things. The goal of science is to try to make theories of well-sustained information that explains the ways of nature. 2. How does science differ from other ways of forming opinions about the world? o In that the scientific method is used. In other ways of understanding the natural world you don’t need evidence in the form of empirical data such as in religion. (pg. 8) 3. What are science’s limitations? o Science has limitations because it strives to be objective, however it holds bias. Also there are so many phenomenon’s in the world that we cannot observe them all so we must draw conclusions based on tendencies. (pg.9) 4. For what kinds of questions is science most appropriate? o I t is most appropriate for answering questions about the natural world, things that are observable and direct that we can draw conclusions from. 5. What kinds of questions can science NOT answer? o Science cannot answer questions about the supernatural. Science is neutral on this subject “secular” meaning that science has no proof or disproof of such things. And has no way of testing it. Also it is not good for answering questions on ethics, morals, and emotions, anything that is subjective. 6. What do the terms ‘fact’, ‘hypothesis’ and ‘theory’ mean in a scientific context? Can a theory ever become a fact, based on these definitions? o Theory, hypothesis, fact, have very different meanings in the scientific world. (pg.1) A theory can never become a fact, but a fact can become a theory, Theory is the umbrella to which everything else falls under. Topic 2: Evolutionary Theory 1. What is the basic outline of the theory of evolution by natural selection? o Cell theory which sates that all cells come from pre-existing cells, all organisms are made of cells, this lays the foundation for the evolutionary theory that states that all organisms are related through common ancestry, and decent from a common ancestor. Natural section also plays a large role in this (pg. 5) 2. What is the evidence that supports evolutionary theory today? (Don’t forget to include things we talked about subsequently in class, like the genetic code, recombinant DNA technology, the use of model organisms, etc.) o Fossil records show the change over time, this corresponds with the idea of evolutionary theory because it shows change over time. Organisms where ever you find them are good at what they do. They are at carrying capacity. All have their niche. Recombinant DNA because you can use the same restriction enzyme because the same sequence of DNA are common in all organisms. The use of modle organisms can be used because their behavior wil model or closely relate to that of humans....
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