Midterm #2 SG

Midterm #2 SG - Midterm #2 SG Ch. 4 Attribute Frequency...

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Midterm #2 SG Ch. 4 Attribute Frequency Model o Suggests that a prototype represents the mode or most frequently experienced combination of attributes o Prototype is synonymous w/ the “best example” of a set of patterns o Prototype is a pattern that incorporates the most frequently experienced features expressed in a series of exemplars Bottom-up processing Recognition process initiated by parts of the pattern Serves as the basis for the recognition of the whole Canonic Perspective o Views that “best” represent an object o Often the 1 st images that come to mind when asked to recall a form o What we can learn from them Form perception Human info processing Prototype formation Economy of thinking Efficiency in communication Central-Tendency Model o Proposed by prototype theory o Prototype represents mean/average of a set of exemplars 1973 Hypothesis Master player has more chess patterns stored & will be able to reconstruct more of common chess game patterns than a Class A or beginning player Players shown game patterns that were either meaningful or random & had to reconstruct the patterns Demonstrated that the ability to see chunks (meaningful clusters) made it possible for better players to gather more info in the given time Important because: Chunks of info held together by abstract relationships may constitute the basis for a theory of pattern syntax Constructive perception o Form & test hypotheses
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o o Unconscious inference Spontaneously integrate info from several sources o Top-down view Direct perception o Stimulus is most important element o Stimulus contains enough information for correct perception o Past knowledge is unnecessary o Most closely associated w/ JJ Gibson o Bottom-up processing Feature analysis o pattern perception is a high-order processing of info that is preceded by a step in which complex incoming stimuli are identified according to simpler features Ex: Arrow o Neurological support Breaking patterns into simpler features may be neurologically necessary before higher- level pattern analysis can take place Fovea o Small indentation in the retina o Contains highest concentration of cones o Provides the greatest visual activity Geon o Biederman o Basic geometric forms which make complex forms when combined o “geometric ions” o 24 distinct geons o Limited # of geometric shapes that can be applied to complex shapes Gestalt Theory o Psych can be understood by examining the way info is organized as a whole s o All parts of stimuli together o Natural/spontaneous organization o Subjective organization Illusory contours o Similarity Objects w/ similar properties
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o Proximity Nearby objects o Good continuation Objects that define smooth lines or curves o Symmetry Objects that form symmetrical patterns o Periodicity Objects that form periodic patterns
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This note was uploaded on 08/03/2010 for the course PSC 141 taught by Professor Elder during the Summer '08 term at UC Davis.

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Midterm #2 SG - Midterm #2 SG Ch. 4 Attribute Frequency...

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