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MIDTERM 2 STUDY GUIDE RESEARCHERS Ivan Pavlov o Conditioning & learning o Classical conditioning Subject is trained and familiar with a certain stimulus – associates stimulus with behavior o Initially interested in digestion, feeding, and gastric secretions (like salivating in preparation for food) o Reactive-organism model kept animal subject from escaping the stimulus BF Skinner o Operant conditioning o Runs on an active-organism model Involves feedback in obtaining reinforcement and emphasizes animal’s motivation Animals are free to decide to move or not as a function of their level of motivation to perform an action o Not normally interested in how hard lever is pushed, but rather how frequently they do it Paul Gold o Examined the role of epinephrine and glucose on rat passive avoidance tests o Memory of drinking tunnel shock Sally & Bennet Shawitz o Examined fMRI and found female hemispheric symmetry in auditory association cortex o Women use L&R hemispheres (bilateral symmetry) and men use L only (asymmetry) Sandra Witelson o Studied sex difference in # of neurons in auditory association cortex o Middle aged women have more neurons than men 11% more in 2 nd level (layer 2) – communicates w/ adjacent columns 17% more in layer 4 – inter-columnar communication Christina Williams o 12 arm radial arm maze and the effects of aromatase inhibitor on male spatial maze learning behavior Robert Sapolsky o Discussed baboon dominance hierarchy and cortisol levels Walter Cannon o Flight/fight homeostasis = regulation o Research also involved 2 way causation, nonspecific stress response Hans Selye o General adaptation syndrome (3 stages): Alarm stage Initial regulatory challenge First episode of neuroendocrine system’s release of hormones Resistance stage Short-term regulatory stress, like repetitive combat situations Exhaustion stage Failure to mount a stress response, as when prey are totally fatigued Bela Bohus o Oxytocin’s affect on amnesia for shock experience in drinking tunnel in rats John Vandenbergh o Intrauterine position of mice and spatial behavior with 2M female adults as more male like in having large home ranges Doreen Kimura o Sex differences in spatial cognition, picture perception, throwing Swen O. Ebbeson
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o Parcellation Theory of brain evolution Slow way to evolve an adaptive difference Branch on 2 neurons slowly vanishes because it’s not necessary or adaptive (gradual change w/ mutations) Timothy De Voogd and Fernando Nottebohm o
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