L-08(GDR)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL) - Module 2 DC Circuit Version 2...

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Module 2 DC Circuit Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
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Lesson 8 Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems in the context of dc voltage and current sources acting in a resistive network Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
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Objectives To understand the basic philosophy behind the Thevenin’s theorem and its application to solve dc circuits. Explain the advantage of Thevenin’s theorem over conventional circuit reduction techniques in situations where load changes. Maximum power transfer theorem and power transfer efficiency. Use Norton’s theorem for analysis of dc circuits and study the advantage of this theorem over conventional circuit reduction techniques in situations where load changes. L.8.1 Introduction A simple circuit as shown in fig.8.1 is considered to illustrate the concept of equivalent circuit and it is always possible to view even a very complicated circuit in terms of much simpler equivalent source and load circuits. Subsequently the reduction of computational complexity that involves in solving the current through a branch for different values of load resistance ( L R ) is also discussed. In many applications, a network may contain a variable component or element while other elements in the circuit are kept constant. If the solution for current ( ) or voltage ( V ) or power ( I P ) in any component of network is desired, in such cases the whole circuit need to be analyzed each time with the change in component value. In order to avoid such repeated computation, it is desirable to introduce a method that will not have to be repeated for each value of variable component. Such tedious computation burden can be avoided provided the fixed part of such networks could be converted into a very simple equivalent circuit that represents either in the form of practical voltage source known as Thevenin’s voltage source ( , Th V magnitude of voltagesource = int Th Re r n a l = ) or in the form of practical current source known as Norton’s current source ( , tan resis ce of thesource N I magnitude of current source = int N r n a l = tan resis ce ). In true sense, this conversion will considerably simplify the analysis while the load resistance changes. Although the conversion technique accomplishes the same goal, it has certain advantages over the techniques that we have learnt in earlier lessons. of current source Let us consider the circuit shown in fig. 8.1(a). Our problem is to find a current through L R using different techniques; the following observations are made. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
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Find Mesh current method needs 3 equations to be solved Node voltage method requires 2 equations to be solved Superposition method requires a complete solution through load resistance ( L R ) by considering each independent source at a time and replacing other sources by their internal source resistances.
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L-08(GDR)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL) - Module 2 DC Circuit Version 2...

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