Lesson 43 Study of Electro-Dynamic Type InstrumentsVersion 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
Objectives •To understand the basic construction of a dynamometer instrument. •Explain basic operation and development of torque expressions for ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter. •Study of ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter connections. •To investigate the errors involve in wattmeter readings and its compensation. •Understanding the effect of inductance of voltage coil (moving coil) on the wattmeter readings. L.43.1IntroductionElectrodynamic type instruments are similar to the PMMC-type elements except that the magnet is replaced by two serially connected fixed coils that produce the magnetic field when energized (see Fig.43.1). The fixed coils are spaced far enough apart to allow passage of the shaft of the movable coil. The movable coil carries a pointer, which is balanced by counter weights. Its rotation is controlled by springs. The motor torque is proportional to the product of the currents in the moving and fixed coils. If the current is reversed, the field polarity and the polarity of the moving coil reverse at the same time, and the turning force continues in the original direction. Since the reversing the current direction does not reverse the turning force, this type of instruments can be used to measure AC or DC current, voltage, or its major application as a wattmeter for power measurement. In the first two cases, the moving and fixed are serially connected. For power measurement, one of the coils (usually the fixed coils) passes the load current and other coil passes a current proportional to the load voltage. Air friction damping is employed for these instruments and is provided by a pair of Aluminum-vanes attached to the spindle at the bottom. These vanes move in a sector shaped chamber. Cost and performance compared with the other types of instruments restrict the use of this design to AC or DC power measurement. Electro-dynamic meters are typically expensive but have the advantage of being more accurate than moving coil and moving iron instrument but its sensitivity is low. Similar to moving iron vane instruments, the electro dynamic instruments are true RMS responding meters. When electro dynamic instruments used for power measurement its scale is linear because it predicts the average power delivered to the load and it is calibrated in average values for AC. Voltage, current and power can all be measured if the fixed and moving coils are connected appropriately. Other parts of the instruments are described briefly below: Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
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