1500_1_ModelOrganisms

1500_1_ModelOrganisms - BIO1500 W07 Model organisms What is...

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1 BIO1500 W07 Model organisms What is a model organism? Wikipedia definition: a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_organisms)
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2 Model organisms are used to study: - biological basis of human disease, immunity and behavior - genetic basis of inheritance - causes of cancer - cell biology - genetic regulation of development - tissue regeneration - aging Genetic model organisms These are species that are amenable to genetic analysis, i.e. they breed in large numbers and have a short generation time so large-scale crosses can be set up and followed over several generations. Examples: Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Nematode roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans) Mouse (Mus musculus) http://genome.wellcome.ac.uk/doc_WTD020803.html
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3 What are the hallmarks of model organisms? -‘Everybody’ knows them - Not a pathogen - Predominant in the scientific literature - Large scale genetic screens - Used by biomedical research groups - Genome sequence has been published prior to 2000 Number of publications on genetic model organisms and lesser studied species in 2006 Phage lambda 13 E.coli 367 Baker’s yeast [S.cerevesiae] 1,649 Thale cress [A.thaliana] 1,322 Round worm [C.elegans] 733 Fruit fly [D.melanogaster] 1,609 Honeybee 76 Yellowjacket 2 Mouse 5,898 Human 22,667
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4 Genome sequences published before 2000 1977 Bacteriophage fX174 1995 Haemophilus influenzae 1997 E.coli K12 1997 Baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevesiae 1998 Caenorhabditis elegans 2000 Drosophila melanogaster 2005 Mouse 2005 Human Animal model organisms based on completed genome sequences http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/leuks.cgi
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This note was uploaded on 08/03/2010 for the course BIO 1500 taught by Professor Pandolfi during the Winter '08 term at Wayne State University.

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1500_1_ModelOrganisms - BIO1500 W07 Model organisms What is...

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