1500_20_Placentalia_1

1500_20_Placentalia_1 - BIO1500 W07 Placental mammals...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: BIO1500 W07 Placental mammals MAMMALIA: classification 1. Subclass/order Prototheria: order Monotremata: platypus (1 species) and echidnas (3 species) 2. Subclass Marsupialia: pouched animals (>330 species) 3. Subclass Placentalia: placental mammals (>4,900 species) PLACENTALIA: defining body plan traits: placenta defining 1) Specialized organ in female uterus connecting fetus with with maternal blood system Mammalian phylogeny: Mammalian morphological versus molecular evidence morphological Springer et al 2004 Molecular phylogenies divide Placentalia into four major groups: Molecular Afrotheria: Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Proboscidea Hyracoidea Sirenia Xenartha Laurasiatheria Eulipotyphla Carnivora Pholidota Perissodactyla Cetartiodactyla Chiroptera Euarchontoglires: Dermoptera Scadentia Primates Lagomorpha Rodentia AFROTHERIA: basic facts 1. Believed to have originated in Africa 2. Movable snout may be morphological synapomorphy Springer et al 2004 AFROTHERIA: classification 1 . Afrosoricida: Golden mowls (Southern Africa) Tenrecs (Madagascar) Both clades originally considered Insectivora Tenrec ecaudatus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tanrek.jpg AFROTHERIA: classification 2. Macroscelidea: elephant or jumping shrews, insectivores, 10-30cm long Short-eared Elephant Shrew http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macroscelidea AFROTHERIA: classification 3. Tubulidentata: Ardvaark (dutch for “earth pig”) !Teeth lack enamel and grow continuosly !Incisors and canines form but are lost such that adults possess molars only !Nocturnal insectivores http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Orycteropu s_afer01.jpg AFROTHERIA: classification 4. Proboscidea: Elephants !Three living species (African bush elephant, African forest elephant Asian elephant African Elephant http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pr oboscidea AFROTHERIA: classification 5. Hyracoidea : small herbivores in Asia and the middle East, four species, multi-chambered stomach with symbiotic bacteria, fluctuating body temperature, cuddle behavior Tree Hyrax in the Serengeti, Tanzania http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyracoidea AFROTHERIA: classification 6. Sirenia : Manates and Dugong !Fully aquatic herbivores !Tail modified into paddle !Low metabolism and no tolerance for cold water http://www.auxilloubeachsuites.com/images/Manatee.gif PLACENTALIA: molecular view Springer et al 2004 XENARTHA: classification Armadillos, sloths and anteaters Insectivores and carnivores Lack incisors and canines Central and South America http://www.peninsulavaldes.org/patagonia/animals/mammals/pichee.htm PLACENTALIA: molecular view Springer et al 2004 EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Dermoptera: colugos or gliding mammals !South east Asia !Able to glide (no true flight) up to 70m distance through air supported by skin extensions connecting fore- and hindlimbs !Nocturnal !herbivores http://www.uq.edu.au/nuq/jack/slides/jp42.html EUARCHONTOGLIRES: colugos http://asia.cnet.com/reviews/digitalcameras/printerfriendly.htm?AT=39378348-39049704t-39000067c38000061q-1 EUARCHONTOGLIRES: colugos Malayan Colugo or Flying Lemur (that is completely unrelated to lemurs), Danum Valley (Sam Woods) http://www.tropicalbirding.com/tripReports/TR_PENMALAYSIAandBORNEO_June2006/TR_penmalborneoreport _JunJul2006.htm EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Scadentia: treeshrews (not true shrews) Some but not all ~20 species arboreal Southeast Asia Highest brain to body mass ratio of any animal Herbivor http://www.ryanphotographi c.com/Paddy's%20photos.ht m EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Primates: Prosimians (inlcudes lemurs) New world monkeys (capuchin, howler and squirrel monkeys) Monkeys and apes of Old World lemurs http://www.mujerpalabra.net/secundaria/pages/exposiciones/lemures.htm EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Primates: Prosimians (inlcudes lemurs) New world monkeys (capuchin, howler and squirrel monkeys) Monkeys and apes of Old World squirrel monkeys morning commute: http://www.zooschool.ecsd.net/squirrel%20monkey.htm EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Primates: Prosimians (inlcudes lemurs) New world monkeys (capuchin, howler and squirrel monkeys) Monkeys and apes of Old World Best buddy Old World apes: http://rag-n-bag.livejournal.com/tag/playa+chimp EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Lagomorpha: two families distinct from rodents Leporidae (hares and rabbits) Ochotonidae (pikas, rock rabbits or coneys, small herbivores present in Asia, North America and Europe) Pikas species in Yellowstone National Park http://www.yellowstonecountry-adventures.com/aboutus.html EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Lagomorpha: two families distinct from rodents Leporidae (hares and rabbits, efficiently proliferating herbivors) Ochotonidae (pikas, rock rabbits or coneys Mountain Hare (Lepus timidus) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I mage:Arctic_Hare.jpg EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Rodentia: Largest mammalian order (>2000 species) Body weight range 7g (African pigmy mouse) to 45kg (Capybara) Cosmopolitan except for Antarctica Mostly herbivor Two continuously growing incisors in upper and lower jaw Canines lacking EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Rodentia: Largest mammalian order (>2000 species) Body weight range 7g (African pigmy mouse) to 45kg ( Capybara ) Capybara, the largest living rodent http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodentia EUARCHONTOGLIRES: classification Rodentia: Largest mammalian order (>2000 species) Body weight range 7g (African pygmy mouse) to 45kg (Capybara) http://www.zoo-burkart.de/zwergmaeuse_bild1.html PLACENTALIA: molecular view Springer et al 2004 LAURASIATHERIA: classification Eulipotyphla include four families: Soricidae (shrews), Eulipotyphla Talpidae (moles), Solenodontidae and Nesophontidae. European Hedgehog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imag e:Hedgehog-en.jpg LAURASIATHERIA: classification Carnivora: >260 species, cats, dogs, bears, seals and walrusses http://commons.wikime dia.org/wiki/Image:Lyn x_lynx_poing.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/w iki/Carnivora http://pinker.wjh.harvar d.edu/photos/cape_cod/ pages/harbor%20seal.ht m http://www3.nationalge ographic.com/animals/i mages/800/walrusportrait.jpg LAURASIATHERIA: Carnivora: dentition LAURASIATHERIA: classification !Pholidota: scaly anteaters or pangolins, one genus, eight species in Asia and Africa !Keratin based scales !Tongue can be extended up to 6cm !Lack teeth !Insectivores that harvest ants and termites with tongue http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Pangolin_borneo.jpg LAURASIATHERIA: classification !Perissodactyla: horse, zebra, tapir, and rhinozeros !Large herbivor animals !Simple stomach !Large middle toe http://www.artchive.com/artchive/L/leonardo /leonardo_rearing_horse.jpg.html http://www.artcyclopedia.com/feature-2003-02durer-rhinoceros.html http://www.enchan tedlearning.com/s ubjects/mammals/ tapir/Tapirprintout .shtml LAURASIATHERIA: classification !Perissodactyla: horse, zebra, tapir, and rhinozeros !Large herbivor animals !Simple stomach !Large middle toe http://homepage.mac.com/lawrencedavid/cuteanimals/ brazilian_tapir.html http://www.billybear4kids.com/animal/whosetoes/Tapir1Yawn.jpg LAURASIATHERIA: classification !Cetartiodactyla: Cattle, hippopothamus, whales and dolphins ttp://www.christcenteredmall.com/stores/art/wysocki/cow-zoom.jpg LAURASIATHERIA: classification !Cetartiodactyla: Cattle, hippopothamus, whales and dolphins http://www.ics.uci.edu/~eppstein/pix/sdz4/Hippopotamus.html LAURASIATHERIA: classification !Cetartiodactyla: Cattle, hippopothamus, whales and dolphins http://www.exzooberance.com/virtual%20zoo/they%20swim/dolphin/Common%20Dolphin%20314016.jpg LAURASIATHERIA: classification !Cetartiodactyla: Cattle, hippopothamus, whales and dolphins http://www.bigsurcalifornia.org/whalehumpback.html LAURASIATHERIA: classification Chiroptera: bats !The only mammals capable of true flight !Nocturnal !Echolocation !Skin expanded between forelimb digits "Chiroptera" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiroptera Chiroptera (bats) versus Dermoptera (gliding mammals) Chiroptera: Skin expansion between forelimb digits and between fore- and hindlimbs Dermoptera: Major area of skin expansion between foreand hindlimb Gliding mammal bat http://www.uq.edu.au/nuq/jack/slides/jp42.html PLACENTALIA: molecular view Springer et al 2004 Animal model organisms based on genome sequences assembled or in progress as of 2/2007 Animal group Mammals Birds Fish Flatworm Insect Roundworms “Other animals” Genomes assembled 24 1 3 0 22 2 4 Genome sequence in progress 24 1 3 4 28 5 11 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/leuks.cgi Mammalian species currently sequenced * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * Group contains species with completed, assembled or ongoing genome sequence project -tree ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 08/03/2010 for the course BIO 1500 taught by Professor Pandolfi during the Winter '08 term at Wayne State University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online