Unformatted text preview: BIO1500 W07 Amphibia BIO1500 W07 Amphibia BIO1500 W07 Amphibia AMPHIBIA: basic facts 1) Monophyletic taxon that includes all tetrapods that do not have amniotic eggs 2) 10cm - 30cm (frogs) - 1m (salamanders) - 1,5m (apoda) 3) ~6000 species 4) Cold blooded PISCES: Paraphyletic assemblage AMPHIBIA: Monophyletic taxon Amphibia Fish AMPHIBIA: basic body plan traits Adaptations for terrestrial life style: 1) Two pairs of appendages for movement 2) Lungs for respiration from air 3) Supplementary skin respiration: oxygen is dissolved in an aqueous film on the skin and passes from there to the blood, the skin must remain moist at all times; 3) Redesigned heart 4) Reproduction in water to prevent eggs from desiccation AMPHIBIA: respiratory system 1. Pulmonary veins pump areated blood into heart 2. Partially divided heart to minimize dilution of areated blood with non-areated blood. 3. Separate pulmonary and systemic vessel systems For comparison: respiratory system in fish SV: Sinus venosus [reduced in Amphibia] A: Atrium V: Ventricles C: Conus arteriosus For comparison: amphibian heart For SV: Sinus venosus [reduced in Amphibia] A: Atrium V: Ventricles C: Conus arteriosus AMPHIBIA: classification a) ANURA (>5,300 species): frogs, toads b) URODELA (~550 species): salamanders, newts c) APODA (~173 species): Caecilians APODA: basic traits 1. Specialized group of tropical burrowing amphibians 2. Legless 3. Internal fertilization 4. Females can carry brood 5. No metamorphosis http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~nhi708/classify/animalia/chordata/amphibia/apoda/index.html FROGS: basic traits 1. Live in or near water URODELA: basic traits 1. Body elongate 2. Long tail 3. Moist skin 4. Two pairs of equal limbs 5 . Teeth 6. Tympanum 7. Gills maintained throughout life in most species. 8. Fertilization mostly external 9. Lateral line sense organ http://www.mblwhoilibrary.org/exhibits/leu http:/ckart/.aalldchayts/attagecomideswt- 116/L11 /www w ca _ em r oft im oo. s/sl /ne 91_ ts.jpg 4 . G I F URODELA : basic traits URODELA Red spotted newt with eggs http://www.tomuphoto.com/reptiles/pages/Red%20spotted%20newt. html URODELA: basic traits Smooth Newt Larva (Triturus vulgaris) http://www.thebhs.org/links-amphibians.htm URODELA: basic traits Eastern Newt: Notophthalmus viridescens http://www.etsu.edu/biology/friendsofnature/FON/nature_photos_p age.htm URODELA : basic traits Amblecote Primary http://www.amblecote.dudley.gov.uk/naturecorner.htm APODA: basic traits feuersalamander http://www.befreitewasser.ch/arten/feuersalamander_g.php ANURA: frogs (Ranidae) ANURA 1. Amphibians without tails 2. Long hind legs 3. Webbed digits 4. Short body 5. Live in or near water 6. Terrestrial but reproduction in water 7. Lungs 8. External fertilization 9. Metamorphosis
Colour plate from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 Kunstformen der Natur, depicting frog species that include two examples of parental care. ANURA: frogs (Ranidae) 1. Lungs ANURA: frogs (Ranidae) ANURA 1. Three eye lid membranes 2. Tympanon: hearing organ http://www.mblwhoilibrary.org/exhibits/leu ckart/wall_charts/images/slides91_116/L11 4.GIF ANURA: basic traits 1. Metamorphosis:
* The gills are replaced by other respiratory organs, i.e., lungs. * The skin changes and develops glands to avoid dehydration. * The eyes develop eyelids and adapt to vision outside the water. * An eardrum is developed to lock the middle ear. * In frogs and toads, the tail disappears.
http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/ aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T304359A.gif ANURA: taxonomy ANURA >5,200 species Divided into 33 families Inlcudes toads Largest families • Leptodactylidiae • Hylidae • Ranidae http://www.sfondideldesktop.com/ImagesAnimals/Frog/Frog-Whites-Tree-Frog/FrogWhites-Tree-Frog.Jpg ANURA: taxonomy >5,200 species Divided into 33 families Inlcudes toads Largest families • Leptodactylidiae • Hylidae • Ranidae Poison Dart Frog http://www.casarioblanco.com/poison-dartfrog.html Toads: assemblage of dried skinned anurans Toads: 1. No real taxon 2. Dry skin evolved multiple times in anurans 3. Bufidae (True toads): only anuran family that includes toad likes species only Gulf Coast Toad, Bufo valliceps http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toads ANURA: toads 1. Paratoid glands produce poisonous substances for defense American Toad, Bufo americanus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Bu fo_americanus1.jpg ANURA: toads ANURA 1. Paratoid glands produce poisonous substances for defense Oriental Fire-bellied Toad, Bombina orientalishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I mage:Bombina_orientalis.jpg ANURA: basic traits White's Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Caerulea3_crop.jpg Wester clawed frog [Xenopus tropicalis] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/leuks.cgi Cleavage and gastrulation in Xenopus tropicalis http://www.xenbase.org/atlas/movies/cleavmov.mov Nobel prize awarded work with frogs xxx Xenopus tropicalis tadpole that twinned after a Spemann's organizer from another embryo was transplanted into its belly. The backbone and developing brain are easily visible. (Photo by Harland lab/UC Berkeley) http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/ 03/09_backbone.shtml Nobel prize awarded work with frogs xxx Diagram of a fate map for an amphibian embryo indicating the positions of ectodermal (including the CNS), mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers and some of the signaling molecules located on the ventral and dorsal (Spemann Organizer) sides involved in D-V polarity formation. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2006/07/ancient_rules_for_bilaterian_d.php Nobel prize awarded work with frogs xxx Diagram of a fate map for an amphibian embryo indicating the positions of ectodermal (including the CNS), mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers and some of the signaling molecules located on the ventral and dorsal (Spemann Organizer) sides involved in D-V polarity formation. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2006/07/ancient_rules_for_bilaterian_d.php Amphib lunch http://cajuncafeonthebayou.olm.net/Food%20Photos/froglegs.JPG ...
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- Winter '08
- urodela, Anura, basic traits