Chapter 18 - Chapter 18: Gas Exchange and Transport About...

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Chapter 18: Gas Exchange and Transport About this Chapter Part I: Gas exchange in lungs and tissues Part II: Gas transport in the blood Part III: Regulation of ventilation
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CO 2 O 2 Alveoli of lungs Airways CO 2 CO 2 O 2 O 2 Pulmonary circulation CO 2 O 2 Cellular respiration ATP Nutrients Cells Systemic circulation CO 2 O 2 Oxygen exchange at cells Oxygen transport CO 2 exchange at alveolar-capillary interface Oxygen exchange at alveolar-capillary interface CO 2 exchange at cells CO 2 transport 1 2 3 4 5 6 Overview Overview of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange and transport Figure 18-1
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Key Gas Laws Reviewed Movement of gas molecules from air into liquid depends on: 1. Partial pressure of that gas (example: O 2 =156 mmHg) 2. Temperature 3. Solubility in a particular solvent O 2 into water (poor) CO 2 into water (good)
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Figure 18-2a–c Behavior of Gases in Solution PO 2 = 100 mm Hg PO 2 = 0 mm Hg PO 2 = 100 mm Hg [O 2 ] = 5.20 mmol/L PO 2 = 100 mm Hg [O 2 ] = 0.15 mmol/L (a) (b) (c) Initial state: no O 2 in solution Oxygen dissolves. At equilibrium, PO 2 in air and water is equal. Low O 2 solubility means concentrations are not equal.
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Figure 18-2c–d Behavior of Gases in Solution
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Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues: Oxygen Pressure Gradients Figure 18-3a: Gas exchange at the alveoli and cells Key Points: Diffusion through thin alveolar cells down diffusion gradient from high pressure in alveoli to lower pressure in blood Diffusion from blood also down pressure gradient from blood to tissue cells (convert O 2 to CO 2 )
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Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues: Carbon Dioxide Pressure Gradient Figure 18-3b: Gas exchange at the alveoli and cells Key Points: Diffusion through thin capillary cells down diffusion gradient from high pressure in capillaries to lower pressure in alveoli Diffusion from tissue also down pressure gradient from high pressure in tissue to lower pressure in blood
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Figure 18-5 Gas Exchange in the Alveoli Oxygen diffuses across alveolar epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells to enter the plasma Wet surface Thin epithelium Little interstitial fluid
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Lung Disease Complements of the American Lung Association normal lung emphysema lung
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Gas Transport in the Blood: Oxygen Figure 18-6: Summary of oxygen transport in the blood O 2 transported in two ways: 1. plasma (2%) 2. (Hb) hemoglobin (98%) Dissolved O2 enters  cells What causes O2 to  leave hemoglobin?
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Oxygen Transport in the Blood: Role of Hb Figure 18-7 : The role of hemoglobin in oxygen transport Oxygen consumption at rest = 250 ml/min
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Figure 18-8 The Hemoglobin Molecule Four binding sites per Hb molecule
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Chapter 18 - Chapter 18: Gas Exchange and Transport About...

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