Bio 575 chapter 08 GEI 07

Bio 575 chapter 08 GEI 07 - Chapter 8 Heritability of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Heritability of Longevity in Humans Why do females Live Longer? Extreme longevity: How Does One Become A Centenarian? Gene-Environment Interactions & Longevity Table 8-1 Parental Age at Death and Average Duration of Life of Offspring aa Mother's Age at Death Father's Age at Death Under 60 60-80 Over 80 Under 60 32.8 years 33.4 years 36.3 years (N = 128) (N = 120) (N = 74) 60-80 35.8 years 38.0 years 45.0 years (N = 251) (N = 328) (N = 172) Over 80 42.3 years 45.5 years ~48 years (N = 131) (N = 206) (N = 184) a Af ter Bell (1918) Table 8-1 Parental Age at Death and Average Duration of Life of Offspring aa Mother's Age at Death Father's Age at Death Under 60 60-80 Over 80 Under 60 32.8 years 33.4 years 36.3 years (N = 128) (N = 120) (N = 74) 60-80 35.8 years 38.0 years 45.0 years (N = 251) (N = 328) (N = 172) Over 80 42.3 years 45.5 years ~48 years (N = 131) (N = 206) (N = 184) a Af ter Bell (1918) Note convergence at older ages. Longevity-matched parents Parental age has an early effect on offspring longevity. Parental age has an effect at early & late ages of offspring. Note lack of convergence at older ages Longevity mismatched parents Fathers & Mothers have different effects on their offspring Penn & Smith, 2007 There is a real cost of reproduction b c STAGE Kcal/ .day # days /stage Total kcal Reference Pregnancy 300 250+ ~75,000 Pitkin, 1981 Lactation 600 730 ~438,000 Schoeller & Fjeld, 91 Prentice, AM 88 von Raaij et al, 91 Development 1836 6570 ~12,062,520 H. Kaplan, 97 Total 1623 7750 ~12,575,570 How Much Energy Does It Take To Make A Human Being? after Arking, Rejuvenation Res. 10:261:2007 Life History = Kcal = Money Two parents w/mean income = $57,400 and with two children need to spend $190,980 per child to raise the offspring to the age of 18. This does NOT include college costs. Or each parent must spend ~18 25% of their annual income to raise each one, or 35-50% of each income to raise both. Same family in UK needs 154% of the income of a 2-parent, 0-child family to have the same standard of living. Expenditures on children by families, www.cnpp.usda.gov. Economist p. 35,17June 2006 Centenarians Are More Likely To Be The First Born of Young Mothers RR of becoming a centenarian = 1.95 (p= .006) relative to controls Multivariate RR showed that mothers age at birth was most important factor if F1 was to survive to 100 yrs: Mother <25 yrs, RR = 2.03 , (p= .001) Maternal age still important even at proband age = 75 RR = 1.87 , (p=.01) The difference between the preceding slide & this one is that this deals with a small subset of the young-mother offspring. But both datasets show that maternal age is important & has different effects at different ages. Maternal effects likely involve fact that young eggs probably have the lowest amounts of pre-existing mitochondrial damage, while older eggs have mitochondria with higher amounts....
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Bio 575 chapter 08 GEI 07 - Chapter 8 Heritability of...

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