chapt03_lecture - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life...

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The Chemical Building Blocks of Life Chapter 3
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2 Biological Molecules Biological molecules consist primarily of -carbon bonded to carbon, or -carbon bonded to other molecules. Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds. Carbon may be bonded to functional groups with specific properties.
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3
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4 Biological Molecules Isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula. -structural isomers -stereoisomers Chiral molecules are mirror-images of each other.
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5 Biological Molecules
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6 Biological Molecules Biological molecules are typically large molecules constructed from smaller subunits. Monomer : single subunit (mono = 1; -mer = unit) Polymer : many units (poly = many)
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7 Biological Molecules dehydration synthesis : formation of large molecules by the removal of water -monomers are joined to form polymers hydrolysis : breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water -polymers are broken down to monomers
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8 Biological Molecules
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9 Carbohydrates Molecules with a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen -empirical formula: (CH 2 O) n -examples: sugars, starch, glucose C – H covalent bonds hold much energy Carbohydrates are good energy storage molecules.
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10 Carbohydrates Glucose -a monosaccharide – single sugar -contains 6 carbons -very important in energy storage -fructose is a structural isomer of glucose -galactose is a stereoisomer of glucose
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11 Carbohydrates
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12 Carbohydrates
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2010 for the course BIO 1510 taught by Professor Rodriguez during the Spring '08 term at Wayne State University.

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chapt03_lecture - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life...

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