chapt04_lecture - Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell Theory...

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Cell Structure Chapter 4
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2 Cell Theory Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke. Early studies of cells were conducted by - Mathias Schleiden (1838) - Theodor Schwann (1839) Schleiden and Schwann proposed the Cell Theory.
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3 Cell Theory Cell Theory 1. All organisms are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the smallest living things. 3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells. All cells today represent a continuous line of descent from the first living cells.
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4 Cell Theory Cell size is limited. -As cell size increases, it takes longer for material to diffuse from the cell membrane to the interior of the cell. Surface area-to-volume ratio : as a cell increases in size, the volume increases 10x faster than the surface area
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5 Cell Theory
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6 Cell Theory Microscopes are required to visualize cells. Light microscopes can resolve structures that are 200nm apart. Electron microscopes can resolve structures that are 0.2nm apart.
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7
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Table 4.1-1
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Table 4.1-2
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Table 4.1-3
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11 Cell Theory All cells have certain structures in common. 1. genetic material – in a nucleoid or nucleus 2. cytoplasm – a semifluid matrix 3. plasma membrane – a phospholipid bilayer
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12
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13 Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus. -genetic material is present in the nucleoid Two types of prokaryotes: -archaea -bacteria
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14 Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells possess -genetic material in the nucleoid -cytoplasm -plasma membrane -cell wall -ribosomes -no membrane-bound organelles
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15 Prokaryotic Cells
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16 Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cell walls -protect the cell and maintain cell shape Bacterial cell walls -may be composed of peptidoglycan -may be Gram positive or Gram negative Archaean cell walls lack peptidoglycan.
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17 Prokaryotic Cells Flagella -present in some prokaryotic cells -used for locomotion -rotary motion propels the cell
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18 Prokaryotic Cells
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chapt04_lecture - Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell Theory...

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