Chem 4A_Midterm3_Review - Chem 4A: Midterm III Review...

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Unformatted text preview: Chem 4A: Midterm III Review 11.09.09 Chapter 9: Properties of Gases and Kinetic Molecular Theory 10: Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions 11: Spontaneity of Chemical Reactions 12: Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Pressure of a gas P = F/A Pressure is force exerted per unit area. For a barometer, P = gh The pressure reading does not depend on the cross section of the tube. Standard atmosphere is: 1 atm =760 torr (mmHg) The ideal gas law PV=nRT Pressure times volume is equal to the number of moles, multiplied by the ideal gas constant, multiplied by temperature. At standard temperature and pressure (STP), T = 273.15 K and P = 1 atm, the ideal gas molar volume is: 22.414 L mol-1 Boyles Law P 1/V Charles Law V t + t o Avogadros Law V n Corrections to the ideal gas law Nonideal behavior of gases becomes more pronounced at higher pressures and/or lower temperatures. The van der Waals equation of state includes pressure and volume corrections Actual pressure is less than ideal due to intermolecular attractions, actual volume is greater than ideal due to excluded volume (intermolecular repulsions). [ ] nRT nb V V n a P =- + 2 ) ( Gas mixtures: Law of partial pressures P X P i i = Daltons law of partial pressures: where X i is the mole fraction of the component. Kinetic Molecular Theory The total kinetic energy of a gas sample, the average energy per molecule, nRT E 2 3 = T k B 2 3 = Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution Most probable velocity,...
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Chem 4A_Midterm3_Review - Chem 4A: Midterm III Review...

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