thrun-stanley - Stanley The Robot That Won The DARPA Grand...

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Stanley: The Robot That Won The DARPA Grand Challenge Sebastian Thrun, Mike Montemerlo, Hendrik Dahlkamp, David Stavens, Andrei Aron, James Diebel, Philip Fong, John Gale, Morgan Halpenny, Gabriel Hoffmann, Kenny Lau, Celia Oakley, Mark Palatucci, Vaughan Pratt, Pascal Stang Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 Sven Strohband, Cedric Dupont, Lars-Erik Jendrossek, Christian Koelen, Charles Markey, Carlo Rummel, Joe van Niekerk, Eric Jensen, Philippe Alessandrini Volkswagen of America Electronics Research Laboratory 4009 Miranda Ave., Suite 100 Palo Alto, CA 94304 Gary Bradski, Bob Davies, Scott Ettinger, Adrian Kaehler, Ara Nefian Intel Research 2200 Mission College Bvld. Santa Clara, CA 95052 Pamela Mahoney Mohr Davidow Ventures 3000 Sand Hill Road, Bldg. 3, Suite 290 Menlo Park, CA 94025 Abstract This article describes the robot Stanley, which won the 2005 DARPA Grand Chal- lenge. Stanley was developed for high-speed desert driving without manual inter- vention. The robot’s software system relied predominately on state-of-the-art artifi- cial intelligence technologies, such as machine learning and probabilistic reasoning. This article describes the major components of this architecture, and discusses the results of the Grand Challenge race.
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(a) (b) Figure 1: (a) At approximately 1:40pm on Oct 8, 2005, Stanley is the first robot to complete the DARPA Grand Challenge. (b) The robot is being honored by DARPA Director Dr. Tony Tether. 1 Introduction The Grand Challenge was launched by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 2003 to spur innovation in unmanned ground vehicle navigation. The goal of the Challenge was the development of an autonomous robot capable of traversing unrehearsed, off-road terrain. The first competition, which carried a prize of $1M, took place on March 13, 2004. It required robots to navigate a 142-mile long course through the Mojave desert in no more than 10 hours. 107 teams registered and 15 raced, yet none of the participating robots navigated more than 5% of the entire course. The challenge was repeated on October 8, 2005, with an increased prize of $2M. This time, 195 teams registered and 23 raced. Of those, five teams finished. Stanford’s robot “Stanley” finished the course ahead of all other vehicles in 6 hours 53 minutes and 58 seconds and was declared the winner of the DARPA Grand Challenge; see Fig. 1. This article describes the robot Stanley, and its software system in particular. Stanley was devel- oped by a team of researchers to advance the state-of-the-art in autonomous driving. Stanley’s success is the result of an intense development effort led by Stanford University, and involving experts from Volkswagen of America, Mohr Davidow Ventures, Intel Research, and a number of other entities. Stanley is based on a 2004 Volkswagen Touareg R5 TDI, outfitted with a 6 processor computing platform provided by Intel, and a suite of sensors and actuators for autonomous driving.
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