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Unformatted text preview: FMFRP 12-15 Small Wars Manual U.S. Marine Corps PCN 140 121500 00 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY Headquarters United States Marine Corps Washington, D.C. 20380-0001 22 December 1990 FOREWORD 1. PURPOSE Fleet Marine Force Reference Publication (FMFRP) 12-15, Small Wars Manual, is published to ensure the retention and dissemination of useful information which is not intended to become doctrine or to be published in Fleet Marine Force manuals. FMFRP's in the 12 series are a special category of publications: reprints of historical works which and are no longer in print. 2. SCOPE Formerly available as NAVMC 2890, Small Wars Manual, was originally printed in 1940. It is one of the best books on military peacekeeping and counterinsurgency operations published before World War II. It still can help Marines prepare for low-intensity conflicts which in the 1930's were referred to as small wars. 3. CERTIFICATION Reviewed and approved this date. BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS 7)S. P. CAULFjLD Major General, U.S. Marine Corps Deputy Commander for Warfighting Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico, Virginia DISTRIBUTION: NAVMC 2890 LOCATOR SHEET Subj: Small Wars Manual (1940 Edition) Location: (Indicate location(s) of copy(ies) of this Manual.) ENCLOSURE (1) SMALL WARS MANUAL UNITED STATES MARINE. CORPS 1940 INDEX REPRINT For Information Only VNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON: 1910 SWM Ch. I RESTR1CTE TABLE OF CONTENTS The Small Wars Manual, United States Marine Corps, 1940, is published in 15 chapters as follow's: Chapter I. Introduction. Section I. General characteristics: ' Par. Small wars defined Classes of small wars Some legal aspects of snial wars 1—3 2 2 4 5 8 1—7 ii 1—4 1-5 1—8 1—9 111. Psychology: Foreword Characteristics Fundamental considerations Revolutionary tendencies Basic instincts 1—10 1—11 1—12 1—13 1—14 Attitude and bearing Conductof ourtroops Summary 1 1—2 1—3 Function of Headquarters Marine Corps Phases of small wars Summary II. Strategy: The basis of strategy Nature of the operations National war 1—15 1—16 1—17 -. IV. 1elationship with the State Department: Importance of cooperation Principles prescribed by Navy regulations.. - 12 14 17 19 19 19 23 27 27 32 1—19 33 33 1—20 34 1—21 1—25 1—26 1—27 35 35 36 37 37 39 39 1—28 41 1—29 41 1—30 43 44 1—18 - Page i—i Contact with State Department represen tatives V. The chain of command—Navy and Marine Corps: Navy regulations Control of joint operations The directive Naval officer commanding ashore Marine officer commanding ashore Marine—Constabulary Direct control by Navy Department VI. Military—civil relationship: Importance Contact with national government officials_ - Cooperation with law-enforcement agencies Contact with the inhabitants 1 1—22 1—23 1- 24 1—31 SWM Ch. II TABLE OF CO1TE1TS Chapter II. Organization. Section I. The estimate of the situation: General The mission Factors to be considered in estimating enemy strength Relative strength Enemy courses of action Own courses of action The decision Supporting measures Campaign and operation plans II. The staff in small wars: Psi. Page 2—1 1 2—2 2 2--3 2—4 2 6 2—5 6 2-6 2-9 7 7 7 8 2--b 11 2—11 12 12 15 17 19 2—7 2—8 Command and staff responsibility in small wars The force commander Staff procedure The chief of staff The first section (Personnel) F—i The second section (Intelligence) F—2 The third section (Plans and Training) F—3 The fourth section (Supply) F—4 The special staff The adjutant The inspector The law officer The officer in charge of civil affairs The chaplain The paymaster The provost inarsha The commanding officer of special troops.. - - The artillery officer The air officer The communications officer The engineer officer The surgeon The quartermaster The chemical officer The tank officer The munitions officer The post exchange officer The amusement and welfare officer HI. Composition of the force: General Infantry Infantry weapons Infantry individual equipment Mounted troops Engineers Tanks and armored cars 2 2—12 2—13 2—14 2—15 2—16 2—17 2—18 2—19 2—20 2—21 2—22 2—23 2—24 2—25 2—26 2—27 2—28 2—29 2—30 2—31 2—32 2—33 2—34 2—35 2—36 2—37 2—38 2—39 2—40 2—41 2—42 2—43 2—44 32 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 43 44 45 49 50 50 50 SWM Ch. III TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter II. Organiza tioii—Continued. Section III. Composition of the force—Continued. Transport. Signal troops V-.. -Chemical troops Medical troops ... Artillery Aviation Chapter III. Logistics. Section I. Iiitrocliiction. .. Par. 2—45 2—46 2—47 2—48 2—49 2—50 Page 51 51 58 58 60 64 II. Supply: Influence of supply on a column Supplyofficers Storage .,... Distribution.. .. . Supply steps Local purchases Requisitions Depots, dumps, and distributing points Chain of responsibility Accountability Public funds Objective Supervision of requisitions Accumulation of stores - -General ..... Importance of supply - - 5 3—6 3—9 8 8 8 8 3—10 9 3—11 9 10 3—8 - ., 3—12 - 3—13 3—14 .. . 3—5 3—3 3—7 .V VV 3—4 3 4 4 3—2 .. 11 11 3—17 12 12 12 3—18 3—19 3—20 15 16 16 3—21 3—27 3—28 3—29 3—30 16 17 17 17 17 18 19 19 19 20 3—31 21 3—32 22 24 25 26 30 - 3—15 ... 3—16 III. Transportation: General Railroad transportation. Motor transportation Tractor-trailer transportation Transportation pools_ - Aviation transport Water transportation Animal transportation Important points in packing Packmules Packhorses Pack bulls Phillips pack saddle -. McClellan saddle Pack equipment Native packers Marines as packers Bull carts Trains with combat columns 3 . - -.. .. - - - - V - 3—23 3—24 3—25 3—26 . .. 3—22 VV - -. 333 3—34 3—35 3—36 SWM Ch. IV TABLF OF CO1NTETS Chapter IV. Training. Section I. Character and purpose of small wars training: Relation to other training Tactical training Rifle company Machine gun company Mortars and 37 mm. guns - - - -.. Troop schools 11. Training during concentration: Training objective Scope of training Disciplinary training Par. 4—1 4—2 - 4—3 4—4 4—5 4—6 4—7 4—8 4—9 Page 3 4 4 6 6 7 9 9 9 III. Training en route on board ship: General 4—10 Shiproutine Time available for troop training 4—11 4—12 Troop schools on board ship 4—13 4—14 Size of classes Example of instruction assignments rifle 4—15 company Subjects covered 4—16 Essential training 4—17 IV. Training in the theater of operations: System of training 4—1 Facilities 4—19 Subjects covered 4—20 Training centers 4—21 4—22 Troop schools 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 Organization of training centers and troop schools 4—23 \T Training programs and schedules: Training instructions Training programs Training schedWes Chapter V. Initial operations. Section 1. Neutral zones: 4—24 - General Purpose, occasion, and circumstances Basic orders Tnstruction Zone force commander's order Proclamation II. Movement inland: Point of departure Mobile columns and flying columns Strength and composition of columns Protective measures covering movemenL - - Establishment of advanced bases inland Movement by rail 4 4-25 4—26 19 19 23 5—1 1 5-2 2 3 3 5—3 5-4 5-5 3 5—B 4 5—7 6 5—8 5 5—9 7 8 5—10 5—11 5—12 9 10 SW Ch. VI TABLE OF COITENTS Chapter V. Initlul operations—Continued. Section III. Military territorial organization: Purpose Influence, of the mission on territorial organization Assignments of troops to areas Size and limits of areas IV. Methods of pacification: The nature of the problem Methods of operation Occupation of an area Patrols ....-. Roving patrols .. Zones of refuge The cordon system The blockhouse system Special methods - -- ... - Chapter VI. Infantry patrols. Section I. Small war tactics: Tactics during initial phases Tactics during later phases Influence of terrain The principle of the offensive The principles of mass, movement, surprise, and security II. Orders and general instructions: Written orders Verbal orders General illBtructions III. Organizing the infantry patrol: Definition Factors which govern its organization Size of the patrol Permanent roving patrols Selection of units Eliniination of the physically unfit Patrol and suhordinat.e leaders The riflesquad .. The headquarters section Attached units - -Guides and interpreters Native transport personnel Native troops Prominent native civilians Transportation Weapons Ammunition Signal equipment Medical supplies . 0 Par. Pn 5—13 13 5—14 13 14 14 5—IS 5—16 5-17 5—18 17 17 5—19 17 5—20 5—21 15 19 5—22 19 5—23 19 19 5—24 5—25 211 6—1 6—2 1 6—3 2 6—4 2 6—3 6—6 5 6—7 5 6—8 5 6—9 7 6—10 S 6—11 S 6—12 6—13 6—14 6—15 9 9 1(1 10 6—16 10 6—17 6—18 II 6-19 &—21) 6—21 6—2 6—23 6—24 6—25 6-26 6—27 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 SWM Cli. VI TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter VI. iifntry patrols—Continued. Scetion Ill. ( )rganz1ng the infantry patrol—Continued. ThI1•. Miscellaneous equipment 6—28 Personal clothing aiid accessories .. 6—29 General preparations 6—30 1V. Feeding the personnel: Responsibility of patrol leader 6—31 6—32 Mess equipment Weightof rations.. 6—33 The field rat jon 6—34 Butchering on the march 6—35 Feeding native personnel .. 6—36 Emergency rations 6—37 V. The March: General 6—38 11 our of starting 6—39 Rate of march 6—40 Factors influencing march formations 6-41 Influence of terrain on march formation 6—42 Road spaces 6—43 Location of patrol and subordinate leaders in march formation. 6—44 Location of the combat train 6—45 Descriptive march formations 6—46 March formations for a reenforced rifle company 6-47 March formations for a reenforced rifle platoon 6—48 March formation for a rifle platoon 6—49 March formation for a rifle squad 6—SO March discipline ... 6—51 March outposts 6—52 r . .. Campsites V 1. Making camp Shelter Bivouac beds Reconnaissance and security: Methods of reconnaissance Reconnoitering by scouts Careful visual reconnaissance Hasty visual reconnaissance Reconnaissance by fire Reconnaissance by aviation personnel Airplane reconnaissance by patrol leaders Intelligence agents Questioning inhabitants for information Dogs on reconnaissance Security on the march Security at rest 6 - . . . 15 16 17 19 19 20 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 26 27 29 30 31 31 32 6—53 6—54 6—53 6—56 32 33 33 6—57 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 39 39 40 6—58 . 1'g 6—59 .. 6—60 .. 6—61 6—62 - - 6—63 .. 6—64 6—65 6—66 6—67 6—68 34 SWM Ch. VII TABLE 01? CONTENTS Chapter Vi. I nfi nt ry pntrols—Continued. Section VII. Laying tuubushes: Definition Selection of position Usual characteristics of an ambush Occupying the positioh The ambush engagement Employment of infantry weapons VIII. Attacking ambushes: Mental preparation Prearranged schemes of maneuver Spirit of the offensive Fire and movement Page 6—69 6—70 -. 6—71 6—72 6—73 6—74 41 41 41 43 43 44 6—77 6—78 45 45 47 48 6—79 48 6—80 51 6—81 52 52 6—75 6—76 Authority of subordinates to act on ovn iitiative IX. Attacking houses and small bivouacs: Attacking houses Attacking small bivouacs Destroying captured bivouacs X. Stratagems and ruses: Rules of land warfare Clearing the station Apprehending informers Spies following a patrol Guerrilla ruses and stratagems XI. River crossings: Introduction Availability of means Swimming Bridges Boats Ferries Fords Rafts 6—82 6—83 6—84 6—85 6—86 6—87 6—91 55 55 55 56 6—92 6—93 6—94 6—95 57 57 58 59 6—96 6—97 59 63 6—98 6—99 67 68 6—88 - - - -. - - -- Crossing horses and mules XIL Special operations: Trail cutting Night operations 6—89 6—90 Crossing unfordable streams with usual infantry equipment - 53 53 53 53 54 Chapter VII. Mounted detachments. Section I. Introduction: Purpose Use of animals an expedient 7—1 1 7—2 1 Need for training in animal care and employment Some difficulties in employing animals 7 7—3 1 7—4 2 SWM Ch. VII TABLE OF CONTENTS Cbnpter VII. Mounted detnehineni s—Continued. Seetl.'n 11. Care of aninials Par. Knowledge of animal inanagenient reqnired - 7—5 Nomenclature 7—6 Identification 7—7 Duties of officers charged with care of .. animals 7—8 Rules for handling animals .. 7—9 7—10 Stables and corrals Grooming .. 7—11 Forage Principles of feeding Watering Conditioning Management of animals on the march. First-aid treatment 8 9 9 9 7—13 10 10 7—15 . 8 7—12 7—14 - Page 3 3 3 11 11 ----- 7—17 14 - 7—18 16 17 17 Communicable diseases Care of the feet Veterinary supplies III. Procurement of animals: Necessity for local purchase.. Procurement agents Native dealers Purchasing from native dealers Minimum specifications for animals Height qualifications 7—16 7—19 7—20 7—21 -. 7—22 7—23 7—26 20 20 20 7—27 21 7—28 7—29 22 24 7—30 24 7—31 25 26 27 7—24 7—25 Age qualifications Examination for soundness Marking of purchased animals .. 19 19 20 Use of United States bred animals in small wars IV. Mounted detachments: Value of mounted detachments Basis for organization A mounted rifle company Machine gun and howitzer units Animals for mounted detachments Sparc mounts Assignment of mounts Horse equipment Individual equipment Arms and ammunition Pack equipment Training, general Training for speoialist8.. Time required for training Combat training Tactical uses of mounted detachments Conduct of mounted patrols 8 7—32 7—33 .. - - 7—34 - 7—35 28 7—36 28 7—37 28 7—38 7—39 7—40 7—41 7—42 7—43 7—44 7—45 7—46 6—47 29 29 30 --- 31 81 81 32 32 32 33 SWM Ch. IX TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter VII. Mounted detachments—Coat inued. Section IV. Mounted (letlLChlflents—Cofltlflued. Combat patrols Ambushes Par. V. Hastily organized mounted patrols: Definitionanduses Discussion Type of animal to employ Other details Chapter VIII. Convoys arid convoy escorts. Section I. Definitions Mission Organization Convoy types March of convoys Disposition of the escort on the iiiarch Defense of a convoy Attack of a convoy .. -- - II. Composition and organization: Types Reconnaissance aircraft Combat aircraft Transport aircraft 7—50 7—51 7—52 7—53 37 39 39 39 8—l 1 8—2 1 8—4 2 8—5 3 8—6 4 8-7 8-9 5 6 6 9—1 1 9—2 1 9—3 9—5 3 3 3 9—6 3 9—7 9—8 4 4 9—9 9—11 9—12 5 6 6 6 9—13 9—14 6 7 9—15 9—16 9 9 10 9—4 Organization Movement to theater III. Selection and preparation of bases: Main airdrome Auxiliary airdromes Advancelandingfields Emergency landing fields 9—10 - - . . -. 9—17 9—18 9—19 9—20 9—21 Theinfantrymission 9 35 8—8 . General Special air tactics involved Special combat mission 34 7_49 8—3 Security measures at the halt Chapter IX. Aviation. Section 1. Introduction: Specifications of landing fields Minimum size of landing fields IV. General conduct of air operations: Control and command. Details of operations Reports V. Employment of reconnaissance aviation: General considerations.. Strategic (distant) reconnaissance Tactical (close) reconnaissance Vage 7—48 .. 9—22 13 14 14 15 16 SWM Ch. X TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1X. Aviation—Continued. Scetion VI. Combat support: General discussion. Fighting aviation.. Attack aviation Bombing aviation Attacks on troop columns and trains Support of marching column Attacks on hostile positions Attacks on towns Aviation as a mobile reserve VII. Air transport: General considerations Troop transportation Transportation of supplies Dropping of supplies Evacuation of sick and wounded Chapter X. River operations. Scctioii I. River operations in general: Necessity for river operations General characteristics of rivers II. Types and characteristics of boats: General Coastwisecommunications Nature of the river Lower river boats Middle river boats Upper river boats Types of boats available Methodof propulsion Influence of tactical principles III. Preparation for river operations: Introduction Par. 9—23 9—24 9—25 9—26 9—27 9—28 18 18 19 9—32 21 9—33 22 22 23 24 9-30 9—34 9—35 9—36 10—I 10—2 -_--- 10—3 10—4 10—5 10—6 10—7 10—8 10—9 10—10 10—11 Boat procurement 10—12 10—13 10—14 10—15 Armamentandequipment 10—16 Crews 10-17 Loading boats IV. Occupation of a river: The mission Similarity to land operation The day's march Rate of movement - - Reconnaissance and security.. Initial contact with the enemy A typical ambush .- ---- - - 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 8 9 11 12 12 13 13 14 10—19 10—20 10—21 17 17 18 18 10-22 19 10—23 10—24 10—25 20 10-26 22 22 10—IS Boatformation 10 3.8 9—31 9—29 Organizingtheriverpatrol The attack Garrisoning the river 17 17 20 20 20 .. ..-. - -- - .. Page 10—27 21 21 SW1V.[ Ch. XII TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter X. River operations—Continued. Section IV. Occupation of a river—Continued. Defensive rneaures Passage of obstaclesl Night operations ...... Supportingforces Par. 10—28 10—29 10—30 .. 10—3! Page 23 23 23 24 Chapter XI. Disarmament of population. SctionI. General 11—i Estimate and plans Laws, decrees, orders and instructions Manner of collecting arms 11—2 Collecting agencies Custody of arms Disposition Permits Control of sources of supply Measures following disarmament 11—5 7 11—6 9 11 12 13 14 - 11—3 3 5 11—4 6 11—7 11—8 11—9 11—10 Chapter XJI. Arnied native organizations. Section I. General: 12—1 Local armed forces 12—2 United States intervention Restoration of authority to local go ernnient.. 12—3 12—4 Formation of a constabulary II. Organization of a constabulary: 12—5 Planning agency .. 12—6 Approval of plans 12—7 Local creative law 12—8 United States creative laws 12-9 Composition Dutiesandpowers Size of force Administrative organization Supply and equipment Records and reports Finances Recruiting Housingand shelter Military courts III. Operations and training: Recruits - - . Unittraining - Urban and rural agents Specialagents Auxiliary units 11 2 2 5 6 (1 7 S 12—11 12—12 8 9 12—13 12—14 12—15 12—16 12—17 12—18 12 13 14 14 15 1219 17 18 18 18 19 1222 Field operations Troop leading IV. Auxiliary forces: 1 12-10 12—20 12—21 Officers 1 12—23 12—24 12—25 12—26 21 21 22 SWM Ch. XIII TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter XII. Armed native orgaiiizations—Conti ii ned. Section V. Civil and military relationship: Relation to civil power Relation to United States forces Par. 12—27 12—28 Puge 23 24 Chapter XIII. Military government. Section 1. General: 13—1 General 13—2 Definitions Authority for exercise of military government - 13—3 Functions of military government in generaL. 13—4 13—5 By whom exercised - 13—6 How proclaimed II. Establishment and administration of military government: 13—7 Jmportance of organization 13—8 Plans - 13-9 The proclamation 13—10 Supplemental regulations 13—11 Digest of information.. Attitude toward local officials and inhabitants_ 13—12 Law-enforcement agencies and public services.. 13—13 Exceptional military courts Control of civil and military administration ..--- - Public utilities Trade relationship Mines and quarries Public revenues Requisitions and contributions Public and private property Employment of inhabitants Police and elections .. - 13—14 13—15 13—16 13—17 13—18 13—19 13—20 13—21 13—22 13—23 1 1 2 2 3 3 5 5 8 9 11 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 19 III. Applications of principles to situations short of war: General considerations What laws apply Chapter XIV. Supervision of elections. Section I. General: Introduction Request for supervision Definitions Responsibilities of electoral mission Intimidation of voters Military and police measures Unethical practices II. Personnel: Chairman Electoral mission staff Commissioned officers Enlisted personnel .. 13—24 13—25 21 14—1 1 14—2 - 14—C - 14—7 2 2 3 4 4 6 14-8 11 14—9 11 14—10 14—11 12 12 - 14—3 14—4 14—S - -- 21 SWM Ch. XV TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter XIV. Supervision of elections—Continued. Section Ii. Personnel—Continued. Civilian personnel Instruction of personnel Replacements Pay and allowances III. Electoral mission: Chairman Vice Chairman Executive oflicer Secretary Inspector Par. - . .... Lawofficer Communicationsofficer 13 13 13 14 -. 14—16 17 ... 14—17 .. 14—18 20 20 -- 14—19 14—20 Intelligence and press relations officer., - - 14—21 Disbursingandsupplyofficer 14—27 14—28 14—29 29 14—30 14—31 14—32 14—33 30 30 30 32 14—34 14—35 14—36 33 33 35 14—24 14—25 -- Departmental board personnel Cantonal board personnel IV. National board of...
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