OBch8 - Robbins Organizational Behavior Chapter Eight...

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior Chapter Eight FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, students should be able to: 1. Differentiate between formal and informal groups. 2. Compare two models of group development. 3. Explain how group interaction can be analyzed. 4. Identify the key factors in explaining group behavior. 5. Explain how role requirements change in different situations. 6. Describe how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior. 7. Define social loafing and its effect on group performance. 8. Identify the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups. 9. List the strengths and weaknesses of group decision-making. 10. Contrast the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, nominal, and electronic meeting groups. CHAPTER OVERVIEW We will cover a lot of territory in this chapter. Since we essentially organize our discussion around the group behavior model in Exhibit 8-5, let’s use this model to summarize our findings regarding performance and satisfaction. Performance Any predictions about a group’s performance must begin by recognizing that work groups are part of a larger organization and that factors such as the organization’s strategy, authority structure, selection procedures, and reward system can provide a favorable or unfavorable climate for the group to operate within. For example, if an organization is characterized by distrust between management and workers, it is more likely that work groups in that organization will develop norms to restrict effort and output than will work groups in an organization where trust is high. Managers should not look at any group in isolation. Rather, they should begin by assessing the degree of support external conditions provide the group. It is obviously a lot easier for any work group to be productive when the overall organization of which it is a part is growing and it has both top management’s support and abundant resources. Similarly, a group is more likely to be productive when its members have the requisite skills to do the group’s tasks and the personality characteristics that facilitate working well together. A number of structural factors show a relationship to performance. Among the more prominent are role perception, norms, status inequities, the size of the group, its demographic makeup, the group’s task, and cohesiveness. There is a positive relationship between role perception and an employee’s performance evaluation. The degree of congruence that exists between an employee and his or her boss in the perception of the employee’s job influences the degree to which that employee will be judged as an effective performer by the boss. To the extent that the employee’s role perception fulfills the boss’s role expectations, the employee will receive a higher performance evaluation. Norms control group member behavior by establishing standards of right and wrong. If managers know the norms
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OBch8 - Robbins Organizational Behavior Chapter Eight...

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