WritingTheResults-Statistics

WritingTheResults-Statistics - PSY 310, Section 06 Writing...

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PSY 310, Section 06 Writing the Results Section Key aspects of the Results section: Provides a concise summary of your results Does not report on raw data, but does include descriptive and inferential statistics Does NOT offer an explanation or interpretation of the data (this comes later, in the Discussion section). Just gives the expected results of statistical tests Most technical section of the paper (primarily uses mathematical / statistical language) Typically the shortest section of a paper Includes both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics Includes tables and figures to summarize data and display results Some terms that are relevant to your Results section: A. Variables: Quantitative variable: (also called a continuous variable ) – values are ordered along a scale or continuum, and provide information about magnitude. Example: IQ, age, time, scores on a test Qualitative variable: (also called a categorical variable) – labels identify distinct categories. Example: treatment group vs. control group, young vs. old, Democrats vs. Republicans vs. Independents B. Descriptive Statistics: using numbers to describe the population 1. Measures of central tendency: where the scores fall Mode – the score that occurs most frequently Median – the point that divides the distribution into equal parts (“the middle”). To compute, rank the scores from highest to lowest, then take the middle score **Mean ( M ) – average value of a set of scores/numbers. To compute, add the scores and divide by the number of scores. 2. Measures of variability: how scores differ from one another Range – the span of scores. Report the two endpoints of the distribution **Standard deviation – the average deviation from the mean. Measures the dispersion or variation in a distribution. To compute, take the square root of the variance 3. Percentages (if appropriate) Example: The majority of participants will show no change: XX% will stop drinking, YY% will stop smoking, and ZZ% will show no change. 1
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PSY 310, Section 06 C. Inferential Statistics: using numbers to infer something about the population, to test your experimental hypothesis(es) **Standard significant levels for p (alpha) values are p < .05, p < .01 1. To test and report DIFFERENCES: t- test – used to compare MEANS of two groups. Example: t (df) = X.XX, p < .05. - df = number of participants minus 1 o Two types of t tests: - Independent groups t-test is used when you have independent samples (e.g., males and females, freshman and seniors, etc.), meaning there are different participants in each group. - Dependent groups t test (also called paired, correlated, or matched ) is used when you want to compare two sets of data from the same sample of individuals (e.g., pre-post test, same participant at time one and time two, etc.). o
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WritingTheResults-Statistics - PSY 310, Section 06 Writing...

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