Econ140A_Chap2_Sol - CHAPTER 2 TEACHING NOTES This is the...

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CHAPTER 2 TEACHING NOTES This is the chapter where I expect students to follow most, if not all, of the algebraic derivations. In class I like to derive at least the unbiasedness of the OLS slope coefficient, and usually I derive the variance. At a minimum, I talk about the factors affecting the variance. To simplify the notation, after I emphasize the assumptions in the population model, and assume random sampling, I just condition on the values of the explanatory variables in the sample. Technically, this is justified by random sampling because, for example, E( u i | x 1 , x 2 ,…, x n ) = E( u i | x i ) by independent sampling. I find that students are able to focus on the key assumption SLR.4 and subsequently take my word about how conditioning on the independent variables in the sample is harmless. (If you prefer, the appendix to Chapter 3 does the conditioning argument carefully.) Because statistical inference is no more difficult in multiple regression than in simple regression, I postpone inference until Chapter 4. (This reduces redundancy and allows you to focus on the interpretive differences between simple and multiple regression.) You might notice how, compared with most other texts, I use relatively few assumptions to derive the unbiasedness of the OLS slope estimator, followed by the formula for its variance. This is because I do not introduce redundant or unnecessary assumptions. For example, once SLR.4 is assumed, nothing further about the relationship between u and x is needed to obtain the unbiasedness of OLS under random sampling. 5
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SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 2.1 (i) Income, age, and family background (such as number of siblings) are just a few possibilities. It seems that each of these could be correlated with years of education. (Income and education are probably positively correlated; age and education may be negatively correlated because women in more recent cohorts have, on average, more education; and number of siblings and education are probably negatively correlated.) (ii) Not if the factors we listed in part (i) are correlated with educ . Because we would like to hold these factors fixed, they are part of the error term. But if u is correlated with educ then E( u|educ ) 0, and so SLR.4 fails. 2.2 In the equation y = β 0 + 1 x + u , add and subtract α 0 from the right hand side to get y = ( 0 + 0 ) + 1 x + ( u 0 ). Call the new error e = u 0 , so that E( e ) = 0. The new intercept is 0 + 0 , but the slope is still 1 . 2.3 (i) Let y i = GPA i , x i = ACT i , and n = 8. Then x = 25.875, y = 3.2125, ( x i 1 n i = x )( y i y ) = 5.8125, and ( x i 1 n i = x ) 2 = 56.875. From equation (2.9), we obtain the slope as 1 ˆ = 5.8125/56.875 .1022, rounded to four places after the decimal. From (2.17), 0 ˆ = y 1 ˆ x 3.2125 – (.1022)25.875 .5681. So we can write n GPA = .5681 + .1022 ACT n = 8. The intercept does not have a useful interpretation because ACT is not close to zero for the population of interest. If ACT is 5 points higher, increases by .1022(5) = .511.
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This note was uploaded on 08/05/2010 for the course ECON Econ 140 taught by Professor Jack during the Spring '10 term at UCSB.

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Econ140A_Chap2_Sol - CHAPTER 2 TEACHING NOTES This is the...

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