lecture_notes - Philosophy 145 Lecture Notes Spring 2010...

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Unformatted text preview: Philosophy 145 Lecture Notes Spring 2010 Table of Contents Page Lecture Notes Lecture 1 Why Think Critically? ..............................................................................1 Lecture 2 Identifying Arguments: Conclusions and Premises ..................................6 Lecture 3 Standardizing Arguments........................................................................11 Lecture 4 Diagraming Arguments ...........................................................................17 Lecture 5 More on Standardizing and Diagraming Arguments ..............................23 Lecture 6 Evaluating Arguments ............................................................................31 Lecture 7 Language Usage, Argument Structure, and Cogency .............................38 Lecture 8 Accepting and Rejecting Premises ..........................................................44 Lecture 9 Relevance ................................................................................................54 Lecture 10 Formal Logic, Part 1 ..............................................................................60 Lecture 11 Formal Logic, Part 2 ...............................................................................76 Lecture 12 Formal Logic, Part 3 ...............................................................................94 Lecture 13 Induction and Scientific Reasoning Correlations ..............................110 Lecture 14 Induction and Scientific Reasoning Causal Claims ...........................119 Lecture 15 Special Problems in the Social Sciences ...............................................129 Lecture 16 Arguments by Analogy .........................................................................134 Lecture 17 Conductive Arguments and Concluding Remarks ................................140 PHIL 145 LECTURE NOTES 1 Lecture 1 Why Think Critically? Welcome to Philosophy 145, Critical Thinking. By way of introducing the course, we will begin by looking for answers to a few questions: What is Critical Thinking anyway? How can you have a course to teach thinking? What benefits could someone expect from taking such a course? Along the way, I'll say a bit about how I've chosen to organize this particular course and why. What is Critical Thinking? Most philosophy departments offer a course called Critical Thinking , or Informal Logic , or sometimes even Argumentation Theory . While some people insist that each of these is in fact a separate subject (and others insist, for instance, that there is no such thing as informal logic), what you get in any of these courses has more to do with who is teaching the course than it does with what the course is called....
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lecture_notes - Philosophy 145 Lecture Notes Spring 2010...

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