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Unformatted text preview: Enlightenment Emphases Enlightenment
• • • Secular Forces Reason and Rationality Government Based on Social Government Contract Contract • Utilitarianism (Utilitarian vs. Utilitarianism Retributive Action) Retributive Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) (1738-1794) Jermey Bentham Jermey (1748-1832) (1748-1832) Assumptions of Classical Theory Assumptions • • Rationality and Free Will Hedonistic Nature of Humans Hedonistic (Bentham – Hedonistic Calculus) (Bentham • Punish to Deter Crime Punish (Punishment must be just, swift, certain, and severe enough to outweigh rewards.) outweigh • Social Contract is Consensual Critique of Classical Theory Shortcomings: Shortcomings 1. Lack of Data 1. 2. Individuality and Subjectivity Downplayed 3. Logical Consistency 4. Tension between Free Will and 4. Determinism 5. Impulsive Acts 6. Overemphasis on Formal Legal Punishment Policy Implications of Classical Criminology Classical Modern Variants Modern
1. Justice or Just Deserts Model 1. (Sherman’s Defiance Theory) (Sherman’s 2. Rational / Situational Choice 2. (conditioned rationality; expected utility) utility) 3. Routine Activities Theory 3. motivated offender, suitable target, lack of guardians lack ...
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- Fall '08