6 - Psychological Theories and Research

6 - Psychological Theories and Research - Biological and...

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Unformatted text preview: Biological and Psychological Theories Theories Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalytic • Freud and Neo-Freudians • Crime symptomatic of Crime unconscious personality conflict (id, ego, superego) which is often rooted in child developmental stages developmental Personality Theory Personality • Differentiating personality Differentiating characteristics characteristics • Personality inventories • Yochelson & SamenowYochelson criminal personality criminal Personality Theory Personality • Caspi et al. -> Negative Caspi emotionality + weak constraint constraint • Psychopathy Research Personality Theory Personality • • Policy Implications Critiques – Personality concept (Mischel) Personality – Exaggeration of differences Exaggeration – Reliance on official data Reliance – Potential for tautology Potential Intelligence and Crime Intelligence • • • • Spurious Relationship Biases of IQ Tests Indirect Relationship Low IQ -> Less Capable of Low Avoiding Detection Avoiding Intelligence and Crime Intelligence • Weak to Moderate IQ - Crime Weak Relationship Relationship • Delinquents tend to score Delinquents lower on verbal than on performance performance Developmental Stage Theories Theories • Erikson - identity vs. role Erikson confusion confusion • Kohlberg - offenders as Kohlberg preconventional reasoners who obey rules only to obtain rewards and avoid punishment punishment Developmental Life Course Theories Developmental - Moffitt: Life-course persistent Moffitt: offending (early socialization and biological predispositions) vs. adolescence-limited offending (modeling and peer interaction) (modeling - Benson - Sampson & Laub (Age-graded social Sampson control model) control Behavioral Learning Theory Behavioral 1. Classical Conditioning 1. (Stimulus -> Response) (Stimulus Eysenck A. Personality Component A. (Extraversion – Introversion & Neuroticism - Stability) Neuroticism Behavioral Learning Theory Behavioral 1. Classical Conditioning Eysenck B. Biological Component E-I: CNS (RAS) N-S: ANS and limbic system Behavioral Learning Theory Behavioral 1. Classical Conditioning Eysenck C. Classical Conditioning C. Component -- Extraversion and neuroticism most relevant to crime to Extraverts classically condition less readily because they are not as threatened by various stimuli (e.g., parental disapproval) related to deviance. Neuroticism makes one prone to self-defeating habits and ways of behaving. and Behavioral Learning Theory 2. Operant Conditioning 2. Positive Reinforcers Negative Reinforcers Punishment Wilson & Herrnstein Behavioral Learning Theory 3. Social Learning Theory 3. Rotter’s Expectancy Theory a. Expected Consequences b. Value Attached to b. Consequences Consequences Behavioral Learning Theory 3. Social Learning Theory 3. Bandura’s Observational Bandura’s Learning Theory – initial modeling and then operant processes processes Behavioral Learning Theory 3. Social Learning Theory 3. Berkowitz’s Frustration – Berkowitz’s Aggression Theory Aggression Behavioral Learning Theory Behavioral Implications for Policy and Implications Practice Practice ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/08/2010 for the course COR 810 taught by Professor Dr.kevinminor during the Fall '08 term at E. Kentucky.

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