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9 - Anomie and General Strain Theories

9 - Anomie and General Strain Theories - Anomie Theory and...

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Unformatted text preview: Anomie Theory and Social Disorganization Theory Disorganization Compare Contrast Contrast • Unit of Unit • Social Social Analysis Analysis Integration Integration Learning/ • Functionalism • Learning/ Socialization Socialization Anomie Concept Anomie Merton: Strain resulting Strain from disjunction between cultural success goals and legal means Durkheim: Breakdown of Durkheim Breakdown capacity of norms to restrain people restrain Anomie/Strain (Merton) Anomie/Strain Success Goals Legal Means (Ideally) Disjunction Gap Gap Legal Means (Reality) Modes of Adaptation Modes • • • • • Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion Policy Implications of Anomie Theory Anomie • Greater access to legitimate Greater means means • De-emphasize success goals Critique of Merton Critique • • • • Limited scope Aging out Root source of goals and means Assumption of uniform Assumption socialization to success goals socialization Recent Directions Recent 1. Research on class-crime 1. connection connection Farnworth et al. 2. Messner & Rosenfeld’s Institutional Anomie Theory Institutional U.S. culture puts heavy emphasis on material success goals, and access to legal means is stratified. (Merton’s point) stratified. U.S. culture also puts weak restraints on the selection of means because the economy is the dominant social institution; other institutions have less capacity for control. capacity - 3. Agnew’s General Strain Theory 3. Strain | Negative Affect | Crime/Del. (Coping Strategy) (Coping Categories of Strain Categories 1. Failure of achieve positively 1. valued goals valued 2. Removal of positively valued 2. stimuli stimuli 3. Introduction of negative 3. stimuli stimuli Categories of Strain Categories 1. Failure to achieve positively valued 1. goals goals a. Long Term Goals – Means Disjunction a. (Merton) (Merton) b. Immediate Goals – Means Disjunction c. Failure due to individual failures d. Expectations – Achievement d. Disjunction Disjunction e. Conception of Fairness – Actual e. Occurrences Disjunction Occurrences Other Ways Strains Vary Other • Objective vs. subjective • Direct vs. vicarious vs. Direct anticipated anticipated • Can be experienced Can independently or in combined cumulative fashion Strains Most Likely to Produce Crime Produce • • • • High magnitude Defined as unjust Weak social control Incentive for criminal coping Incentive (deviant peer associations) (deviant Responses to negative affect resulting from strain depend on: resulting • • • Type of affect (anger) Specific person (personality) Types of strain – Defined as unjust Defined – High magnitude High – Weak social control Weak – Criminal coping incentive Criminal Strain and Coping Skills Strain Critique and Policy Implications Implications ...
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