10 - Subcultural Theories

10 - Subcultural Theories - Subcultural Theories...

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Unformatted text preview: Subcultural Theories Subcultural • • Cohen (strain) Miller (subcultural deviance/ Miller learning) learning) • Wolfgang & Ferracuti Wolfgang (subcultural deviance / learning) (subcultural • Anderson (subcultural deviance / Anderson strain) strain) Cohen’s Subcultural Theory Cohen’s • • • Status motive Status Middle class measuring rod Status frustration arising out Status of school experiences of • Gang as reaction formation Cohen’s Theory – cont. Cohen’s • • • College Boys Corner Boys Female Delinquency Policy Implications of Cohen’s Theory Cohen’s • Early childhood intervention Early programs programs • School based delinquency School prevention and intervention Critique of Cohen Critique • • Logical consistency issue Stability and cohesiveness of Stability gangs (Yablonsky) gangs • Effect of dropping out of Effect school??? school??? • Does not explain origins of Does dominance of middle class standards and lower class socialization socialization Miller’s Lower Class Milieu Theory Theory Lower class, male, gang Lower delinquency in urban areas areas Middle Middle Class Class Value Value System Lower Class Value System Gang Activities Focal Concerns Focal • • • • • • Trouble Toughness Smartness Excitement Fate Autonomy Ultimate Cause of Delinquency and Gangs Delinquency Due to the preponderance Due of single-parent mother-only households in lower class areas, young males develop anxiety over masculinity. They overcompensate by joining macho-oriented same-sexed peer groups. same-sexed Mid-City Project (Boston) Mid-City Critique of Miller’s Theory Critique • Middle class delinquency and Middle vulnerability to tautology vulnerability • Female delinquency Female • Sexist and classicist Sexist overtones overtones Wolfgang & Ferracuti Wolfgang Subculture of Violence Subculture Thesis Thesis Felson et al. Felson • Subculture of delinquency of Subculture which subcultural violence is a part part • Impression management vs. Impression internalization of violent norms norms • Most inner city families hold Most mainstream values, but some are committed to street values (the code). code). • The central tenant of the code is The to not tolerate public display of disrespect; meet such displays head on with violence if needed. head • One who does not observe the One code and build a reputation is vulnerable. Anderson’s Code of the Street Thesis the • Code values are not as stable and as Code widely diffused and internalized among lower class people as hypothesized by Miller. hypothesized • The code is an adaptation to the The insecurities and the depriving and often violent conditions of inner city life. Legitimate avenues of gaining respect (e.g., a professional career) are closed. Anderson’s Code of the Street Thesis the ...
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