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Unformatted text preview: Akers’ Social Learning Theory Akers’ • Sutherland (as Sutherland grounded in symbolic interactionism) • Operant / cognitive Operant theory from psychology theory Akers (Social Learning) Akers
Macro and meso factors Macro form the learning environment or context within which micro learning processes transpire. transpire. • • • • Macro and Meso Factors (Akers) (Akers) Differential social Differential organization organization Differential Location Theoretically Defined Theoretically Structural Variables Structural Differential Social Location in Differential Groups Groups Criminal behavior is more likely to the extent that the person: to
• Associates more with those who Associates support offending support • Has more exposure to criminal Has than conforming models than • Gets more reinforcement for Gets illegal than legal action illegal • Has acquired more definitions Has favorable to crime than conformity conformity Two Stage Learning Process Two
1. Initial acquisition a. Association with people a. supportive of crime supportive b. Acquire excessive definitions b. favorable to law violation favorable c. Observe models d. Anticipation 2. Actual consequences Definitions Definitions Behavior and Consequences Associations and Definitions Associations
1. 2. Definitions arise from associations. Definitions unfavorable to law Definitions violation (conventional beliefs) violation 3. Definitions favorable to law Definitions violation either define crime as acceptable or neutralize conventional beliefs. 4. Definitions serve as discriminative 4. Definitions stimuli stimuli Differential Reinforcement Differential
• Past, present, and anticipated Past, future ratio between net rewards and punishments rewards Policy Implications Policy
• • Prevention Intervention with offenders Manipulate associates, Manipulate definitions, models, and consequences consequences Critique Critique
• Good scope, consistency, some testability, policy implications, and validity implications, • Parsimony problems • Potential for tautology Critique Critique
• Chicken-egg issues • Underdeveloped macro Underdeveloped component component • Underdeveloped concept of Underdeveloped nonsocial reinforcement nonsocial Wood et al. Wood
• Nonsocial reinforcement • Neurophysiological high and Neurophysiological symbolic importance for selfsymbolic concept development and concept personal identity personal ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/08/2010 for the course COR 810 taught by Professor Dr.kevinminor during the Fall '08 term at E. Kentucky.
- Fall '08