16 - Labeling Perspective

16 - Labeling Perspective - Labeling • Focus on...

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Unformatted text preview: Labeling • Focus on criminalization Focus rather than etiology of criminal behavior; raises issue of political power issue • Grounded in symbolic Grounded interactionism interactionism Becker 1. No act is inherently or 1. objectively deviant. objectively 2. Relativity of deviance over 2. time, place, and person is demonstrative of its socially constructed nature constructed 3. Moral entrepreneurs 4. Stereotypes Themes 1. Social status attributes (extra 1. legal factors like gender, class, and ethnicity) CAN influence CAN which people and what acts get labeled/ processed as deviant. Themes 2. The experience and process 2. of getting labeled CAN render CAN the labelee more committed to deviance – self-fulfilling prophecy. prophecy. Tannenbaum Dramatization of evil E. M. Lemert Primary Deviance {Slippage Slippage Secondary Deviance Secondary Additional Concepts • Retrospective Interpretation – Retrospective Schur Schur • Master Status – Becker • Deviance Amplification Deviance Wilkins Wilkins Policy Implications Policy • Tolerance for diversity • Actively guard against extra Actively legal biases legal • Actively guard against selffulfilling prophecies • Schur – radical nonintervention • Diversion, decriminalization, Diversion, deinstitutionalization deinstitutionalization Critique of Labeling Critique • Akers – no wide scale pattern Akers of substantial extra-legal bias of • Akers – secondary deviance Akers hypothesis lacks evidence hypothesis • Akers – Neglect of primary Akers deviation deviation Critique of Labeling Critique • Relativity of deviance? • Insufficient emphasis on Insufficient power -- sociology of nuts, sluts, and perverts Braithwaite Types of Shaming • Disintegrative shaming • Reintegrative shaming Social/Cultural Contexts • Communitarian societies • Individualistic societies Developmental Structural Disadvantage Model (Bernburg & Krohn) (Bernburg • • • Differential opportunity theory Social learning theory Developmental life course Developmental criminology (trajectory of marginality and disadvantage) marginality ...
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