Lab1.ppt - BIO 100 Lab BIO 100 Lab Instructor: Grayson...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO 100 Lab BIO 100 Lab Instructor: Grayson Patton Email: grayson_patton7@eku.edu Office: Memorial 80 Laboratory 1: Top­Down Biology, Laboratory 1: Top­Down Biology, Human Population & The Rainforest Objectives Objectives Know what top­down biology consists of Information regarding human population growth and some of its implications & impacts Learn about the rainforest Top Down Biology Top Down Biology Top Down Biology Top Down Biology Biosphere Biomes/Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms Organs Tissues Cells Atomic Particles Biosphere Biosphere The Planet and everything in it Biomes/Ecosystems Biomes/Ecosystems An area with similar climate, plants and animals Rainfall is main difference Communities Communities A group of living things that interact Populations Populations A group of living things that can freely reproduce and produce fertile offspring Example of Reproduction Without Example of Reproduction Without Viable Offspring Male Donkey + Female Horse = Mule Human Population Growth Human Population Growth Human Population Human Population Population growth is the result of the number of births vs. the number of deaths Exponential Growth vs. Arithmetic Growth Factors of Population Growth Factors of Population Growth Number of Males and Females Food Availability Space Number of Births Number of Deaths Fertility Rates Infant Survival Rates Disease Cleanliness Exponential Growth Exponential Growth Growth of a population without constraints RATE of growth is not a fixed number, as it is in Arithmetic Exponential Growth Exponential Growth (Proportional Growth) Year 1: 100 + 10% = 10 new people; total population would be 110 Year 2: 110 + 10% = 11 new people added; total population would be 121 Year 50: Total population would be 10672 Arithmetic Growth Arithmetic Growth The population adds the same number of individuals each year This is not observed very often in natural populations 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Growth Rates Growth Rates Third World and Developing nations are growing at a rate of 0.03 The U.S. is growing at a rate of 0.009 The average for the world is 0.013 500000 450000 400000 350000 300000 Developing 250000 U.S. Average 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 Human Population Growth Human Population Growth U.S. Population U.S. Population As of January 13, 2007, there are unofficially 300,959,639 people in the U.S. At the same time the world population is 6,569,427,254 Human Population (projected) 70000000000 60000000000 50000000000 40000000000 population 30000000000 20000000000 10000000000 0 1 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 79 85 91 97 103 109 115 121 127 133 139 145 151 157 163 169 175 181 187 193 year Tropical Rainforests Tropical Rainforests Percentage of World's Forests Russia 22.1 Brazil 15.9 Canada 7.1 USA 6.2 China 3.9 Indonesia 3.2 Zaire (DRC) 3.1 Percentage Ranking of World's for Total Land Land Area 11.5 1 5.7 5 6.7 2 6.5 4 6.5 3 1.2 16 1.6 12 Tropical Rainforests Tropical Rainforests Rainforests use to cover 12% of the Earth’s surface (≈ 6 million square miles) Today it covers less than 5% of the worlds surface ( ≈ 2.41 million square miles) However, they hold about 50% of the worlds species World’s Rainforests World’s Rainforests World’s Rainforests World’s Rainforests Location Ethiopian/Afrotropical Australasian Oriental or Indomalayn Neotropical Percent 30 9 16 45 Rainforests Characteristics Rainforests Characteristics 12 hours of daylight, 365 days a year Between 72 – 93ºF year­round At least 80 inches of rainfall, but can get up to 430 inches each year Thus, very high humidity Biodiversity of Tropical Rainforests Biodiversity of Tropical Rainforests 50% of all species on the planet (between 5 and 50 million species) In Kentucky, about 6 species of tree per hectare In a rainforest, about 480 trees per hectare Rainforests as Climate Regulators Rainforests as Climate Regulators Rainforests absorb 200­300 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year Much of it is converted to plants bodies (90%), some is given off in plant respiration If trees are constantly removed, there is nothing growing, so carbon is not being removed Simple Equation Simple Equation More Cars + Less Trees = Higher CO2 levels How much do we give off? How much do we give off? In 2005, a small car averaging 12500 miles per year getting 28.7 mpg uses 436 gallons of gas per year; how much carbon will it produce? 4.3625 tons With 68.4 million vehicles (registered and unregistered) in the U.S. in 2005 we released 2.98 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere Carbon Dioxide on the Rise Carbon Dioxide on the Rise How reliable is our data? How reliable is our data? Reliable data are based on good Reliable data are based on good science Biodiversity Relationships Biodiversity Relationships Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism – both organisms benefit Commensalism – one organism benefits, the other is not affected positively or negatively Parasitism – one organism benefits at the expense of another Mutualism Mutualism Whale Shark and Wrasse Shark need the cleaning and the Wrasse needs the food. Commensalism Commensalism Nemo and Anemones Clownfish, or Nemo’s, live within the Sea Anemones. These Anemones have a sting that is harmful to other fish so they stay away. The Clownfish is immune to this sting and uses this for its home. The Anemones do not receive anything from the clownfish. ONLY the clownfish get anything Parasitism Parasitism Mistletoe in KY It feeds off the plant it is on Parasitism II Parasitism II Sea Lamprey and Fish The sea lamprey is a parasitic fish that attaches to the fish by a sucker and then digests the host’s blood until the host dies. The sea lamprey has entered the Great Lakes and has started to spawn, reeking havoc on the native fish population. Rainforest Destruction Rainforest Destruction The rain forest is being destroyed at about 1000­3000 acres/hour This may cause many species to go extinct that we never see The golden toad as not been seen in the wild since 1989 Brazilian Rainforest Destruction Brazilian Rainforest Destruction 1986 1975 1992 Reasons for Deforestation Reasons for Deforestation Clear­cutting for logging and pulpwood Conversion for permanent agriculture (coffee, soybeans, etc.) Conversion to pasture for livestock Being in the U.S., I don’t contribute Being in the U.S., I don’t contribute to rainforest destruction, do I? Yes Product Consumption Gap Starbucks ...
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