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Unformatted text preview: Laboratory 5: Kingdoms Monera & Protista Monera Objectives Objectives Look Look at representative organisms in the Kingdoms Monera and Protista Kingdoms the functions of these two Understand Understand kingdoms kingdoms Kingdom’s Monera and Protista Kingdom’s Both Both are comprised of unicellular organisms organisms are autotrophs, some are heterotrophs & some are chemoautotrophs (These use N, H or S). chemoautotrophs Some Some Kingdom Monera Kingdom This This includes all Archaebacteria & Eubacteria Eubacteria of both: Characteristics Prokaryotic Prokaryotic (lack membrane-bound organelles) organelles) Single-celled Reproduction is done asexually Kingdom Monera Kingdom Differences Differences Eubacteria Eubacteria The between Archaebacteria & chemical composition of their cell walls Comparative Comparative biochemistry says they have different nucleic acid structures different taxonomy say they are the same based on comparisons of their structures and metabolism metabolism Numerical Numerical Archaebacteria Archaebacteria
3 primary groups Methanogens Thermophiles Halophiles Methanogens Methanogens Live in O2 free environments
sewage, digestive tracts of animals Swamps, Produce methane (CH4) as a by-product Can contribute to global warming Thermophiles Thermophiles Bacteria Bacteria that can thrive in hot places (sometimes above 100ºC) (sometimes be used in genetically modified bacteria due to heat tolerance bacteria May May Halophiles Halophiles Live Live in very salty places or near hydrothermal vents in deep oceans hydrothermal Eubacteria Eubacteria Prokaryotic Many Many types, distinguished by the role they play in the environment in in the soil Abundant Abundant Play Play an important role in N-fixation and decomposition decomposition Eubacteria and the Nitrogen Cycle Eubacteria Other bacterial uses Other Eubacteria – 3 main groups Eubacteria Bacillus Coccus – rod-shaped – spherical – spiral-shaped Spirillum Bacteria Staining Bacteria Gram Gram Negative – bacteria that are stained red with safranin red Positive – bacteria that stain purple when stained with crystal violet when Gram Gram Cyanobacteria – blue-green algae Cyanobacteria They They were placed with plants before because they have chlorophyll A and can do photosynthesis do believe that since they are prokaryotic, they are more closely related to bacteria to Taxonomists Taxonomists Exercise #1 Exercise Anabaena A colonial blue-green colonial algae algae like a string of Looks Looks beads beads Kingdom Protista Kingdom Kingdom Protista Kingdom Single-celled Eukaryotic 3 types Plant-like (autotrophic) Animal-like (have locomotion) Fungi-like (digest food outside their body) Animal-like Protistans Animal-like Phylum Phylum Phylum Phylum Mastigophora Sarcodina Sporozoa Ciliophora Phylum Mastigophora Phylum These have one or more flagella a blood parasite of mice Trypanosoma; Trypanosoma; and rats and Phylum Sarcodina Phylum Move Move by means of a pseudopodia pseudopodia proteus produces Amoeba Entamoeba dysentery dysentery Phylum Sporozoa Phylum No No known means of locomotion except the male gametes male All are internal All parasites parasites Parasite is stained Parasite blue; the larger cells are white blood cells are Phylum Ciliophora Phylum These move by means of cilia Plant-like Protistans Plant-like Phylum Phylum Phylum Euglenophyta Pyrrophyta Chrysophyta Phylum Euglenophyta Phylum Have Have chlorophyll A and B and are photosynthetic photosynthetic Single-celled; Single-celled; no cell wall; move with a flagellum flagellum Phylum Pyrrophyta Phylum Known Known as dinoflagellates dinoflagellates Have 2 flagella, have Have chlorophyll A & B, have a cell wall made of cellulose of They contain They accessory pigments that cause them to look red or yellow look Gymnodinium Causes ‘red’ tides Phylum Pyrrophyta Phylum (Ceratium) Phylum Chrysophyta Phylum Golden brown algae Have chlorophyll A & B, but the accessory Have pigments make them look clear, yellow, yellow-brown or golden-brown yellow-brown Their cellulose cell wall has silica which is Their extracted by water and creates diatomaceous earth (used as a polish in toothpaste) toothpaste) Diatoms Diatoms Fungi-like Protistan Fungi-like Phylum Slime They They Gymnomycota molds feed on bacteria and decaying plant material material fruiting bodies can be found Sometimes Slime Molds Slime Dictyostelium & Physarum Dictyostelium Physarum ...
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- Spring '08