Organizational_and_Political_Process_Models -...

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Organizational and Political Process Models This handout summarizes the Organizational Behavior Model, Governmental Politics Model, and Actor-Process Model that can be useful in your structured analysis. For more information on these models, please see the references included with each summary. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MODEL Reference: Allison and Zelikow, Essence of Decision , 1999, Chapters 3 and 4. Unit of Analysis: A policy decision, decision implementation, or other behavior by a single organization. Note: This model assumes that the decision or behavior originates from inside a single organization—i.e., from within the organization's structure and not from any single individual. . Step 1: Determine the policy decision, decision implementation, or other behavior you are trying to explain or predict. Identify the organization whose output or behavior you want to explain or predict. What is your specific research question? Step 2: Perform an in-depth study of how the organization perceives the issue in question. Determine the organization’s goals or objectives for the issue. Also determine the organization’s culture (see discussion of different cultures later in this handout) and the existing rules , which make up the standard operating procedures ( SOPs ), repertoires , routines or programs that may impact on the issue. Note: This is the most difficult and time-consuming part of the analysis. It may include both a literature review and field data collection. The analyst must study the historical, structural (social, political, and economic) factors affecting the organization involved. Here is also a good place to warn the analyst to avoid “mirror-imaging,” i.e., do not try to force your own thought patterns, values, or assumptions on the organization. When evaluating organizational cultures, pay special attention to: (1) how the organization defines success in operational terms, (2) what selective information is available to the organization, (3) what special systems or technologies are operated by the organization, (4) what are the professional norms for recruitment and tenure, (5) what is the organization’s experience with making “street level” decisions, and (6) how are rewards distributed in the organization. See the last section of this handout for additional information on classifying organizational cultures. Step 3: Determine the organization’s range of effective choices for the issue. Note: Existing organizational capacities limit the range of effective choices unless the organization is known for an innovative organizational culture. Step 4: To explain the organizational output (decision or behavior) seek to identify the special capacities (sets of rehearsed SOPs), repertoires, routines, or programs that produced the output. In general, organizations will tend to emphasize objectives most
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congruent with their special capacities. The same analytic technique may be used to predict the organization’s future output.
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Organizational_and_Political_Process_Models -...

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