Chapter 14 AP BIO.pdf - Ch 14 Gene to Protein Date AP BIO What you need to know(WORK ON WORKSHEET(THE GENETIC CODE SLIDE \u25cf The key terms gene

Chapter 14 AP BIO.pdf - Ch 14 Gene to Protein Date AP BIO...

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  Ch. 14 Gene to Protein Date: 12/12/2018 AP BIO What you need to know: (WORK ON WORKSHEET) (THE GENETIC CODE SLIDE) The key terms: gene expression, transcription, and translation. The major events of transcription. How eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription. The steps to translation. How point mutations can change the amino acid sequence of a protein.
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  Concept 14.1: Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation Gene Expression: process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins (or RNAs) Old idea: one gene-one enzyme hypothesis (Function of a gene = dictate production of specific enzyme) Proposed by Beadle & Tatum – mutant mold experiments Newer idea: one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis Most accurate: one gene-one RNA molecule (which can be translated into a polypeptide) Flow of genetic information Central Dogma: DNA → RNA → protein Transcription: DNA → RNA Translation: RNA → protein Ribosome: site of translation
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  Flow of Genetic Information in Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTES In cytosol Transcription and translation both in cytoplasm DNA/RNA in cytoplasm RNA poly binds directly to promoter Transcription makes mRNA (not processed) No introns During the process it attaches to the nuclear wall and exits and attaches itself to free or attached ribosomes to make produce different things. Transcription in nucleus; translation in cytoplasm DNA in nucleus, RNA travels in/out nucleus RNA poly binds to TATA box & transcription factors Transcription makes pre-mRNA → RNA processing → final mRNA Exons, introns (cut out)
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  one gene = one RNA molecule DNA RNA Nucleic acid composed of nucleotides Double-stranded Deoxyribose=sugar
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  • Fall '17
  • Angelica Osuna
  • DNA, RNA

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