ConceptsinOrganicChem

ConceptsinOrganicChem - FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND TOOLS IN...

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FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND TOOLS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I. HYBRIDIZATION and BONDING s and p Atomic Orbitals combine to form sp, sp 2 and sp 3 Hybrid Orbitals. sp hybridized atoms have linear geometries. sp 2 hybridized atoms have trigonal planar geometries. sp 3 hybridized atoms have tetrahedral geometries. Atomic orbitals combine to form Molecular Orbitals. sp n orbitals are typically involved in σ -bonding. p orbitals are typically involved in π -bonding. The Octet Rule states that most stable organic molecules have eight electrons around each atom except for hydrogen. This fills the s and p orbitals. Carbon atoms in stable molecules typically have four bonds. Nitrogen atoms in stable molecules typically have three bonds. Oxygen atoms in stable molecules typically have two bonds. II. STRUCTURE Structure is the most important concept in organic chemistry. Structure determines the molecular and bulk physical properties and the reactivity of a compound. The diverse functional groups in organic chemistry can essentially be grouped into 5 categories or "oxidation states of carbon" based on the number of bonds to substituents other than hydrogen and carbon. Using oxygen atoms as substituents on methane (oxidation!): 1) Methane (ie. all alkanes) 2) Methanol (ie. alcohols, alkyl halides) 3) Formaldehyde (ie. aldehydes, ketones, ketals, imines) 4) Formic Acid (ie. carboxylic acids, esters,
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This note was uploaded on 08/11/2010 for the course CHEM 30B Chem 30B U taught by Professor Miguelgarciagaribay during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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ConceptsinOrganicChem - FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND TOOLS IN...

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