Lecture 3 Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression

Lecture 3 Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression -...

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IPHY 2060 Lecture 3: Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression
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Review of Key Concepts Proteins are the main effector molecules in the cell Nucleic acids contain the information necessary to make a protein
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The Central Dogma of Biology Information storage Information transfer Function Transcription: The process of making an RNA copy of a DNA sequence in order to make a protein
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Transcription requires an enzyme called RNA polymerase RNA polymerase moves along a single strand of the double helix, making a complementary RNA copy of the sequence of nucleotides of that strand
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RNA polymerase reads the “bottom” strand 3’ to 5’ and makes the RNA 5’ to 3’ 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ A G G C A C C T G G G C T A T C C G T G G A C C C G A T 3’ 5’ T C C G T G G A C C C G A T 5’ 3’ A G G C A C C T G G G C T A 5’ 3’ A G G C A C C T G G G C T A RNA Bottom Strand Top Strand
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RNA polymerase reads the “bottom” strand 3’ to 5’ and makes the RNA 5’ to 3’ 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ A G G C A C C T G G G C T A T C C G T G G A C C C G A T 3’ 5’ T C C G T G G A C C C G A T 5’ 3’ A G G C A C C T G G G C T A 5’ 3’ A G G C A C C U G G G C U A RNA Bottom Strand Top Strand
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3 Steps to RNA transcription
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Definition of a Gene: The entire sequence of DNA necessary for creating a single RNA or protein
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Key Point: All cells in the body contain the exact same number of genes, but different cells activate different subsets of genes
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How do we activate some genes and not others? By recruiting the RNA polymerase complex to specific genes and not to others
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How do we recruit the RNA polymerase to some genes but not others? Through binding of proteins called general transcription factors to the promoter in the gene regulatory region, which then brings the RNA polymerase down to bind at the transcription start site
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Genes consist of 2 major parts: The regulatory region—the sequence of nucleotides that tells a gene when, where, and to what extent it is supposed to be turned on to create an RNA and thus a protein The coding region—the sequence of nucleotides that actually is responsible for creating an RNA and thus a protein Gene coding region Regulatory region 5’ 3’
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The gene regulatory region consists of 3 parts: The promoter Proximal promoter elements Distal enhancers
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Promoters
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Lecture 3 Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression -...

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