Lecture 7 Physiological Regulation of Protein Synthesis

Lecture 7 Physiological Regulation of Protein Synthesis -...

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IPHY 3060 Lecture 7: Physiological Regulation of Protein Synthesis
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Key Points from Before: DNA stores the information necessary to create a protein The information in DNA is converted into an RNA, which is the actual template for creating a protein RNA is processed to form a mature, spliced template for protein synthesis The sequence of nucleotides in the RNA is the information for creating a protein
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Protein Translation: The formation of a strand of amino acids using the information encoded in the nucleotide sequence of an RNA
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3 Kinds of RNA involved in protein translation Messenger RNA (mRNA)—contains the information necessary to produce a protein Transfer RNAs —read the code of the mRNA and insert the correct amino acid into the polypeptide chain Ribosome —protein-RNA complex that acts as the factory for producing a protein
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Messenger RNA (mRNA):
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Messenger RNA (mRNA): Contains the nucleotide sequence or genetic code for creating a protein
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The Genetic Code of the mRNA: Consists of words of 3 nucleotides called codons
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The Genetic Code consists of 3 nucleotide “words” called codons
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The Genetic Code is Non- Overlapping Insertions or deletions to the “reading frame” produce an entirely different amino acid sequence
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The Genetic Code is Non- Overlapping This is referred to as a frame-shift mutation
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Key Point: DNA mutations that cause the insertion or deletion of a single base pair can dramatically change the sequence of the protein downstream from the insertion
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The Genetic Code is Degenerate: Different codons can code for the same amino acid
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Genetic code degeneracy is due in part to “wobble” or non-specificity at the 3 rd base position in the codon GCA Alanine GC G Alanine 3 rd base 3 rd base
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Key Point: Mutations that change the sequence of the 3 rd base often have no effect on the resulting protein
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Missense Mutations U CU A mutation that DOES change the amino acid sequence is known as a missense mutation Ser
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Transfer RNA
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Transfer RNA: Small RNAs which bind to amino acids and bind to the codon sequence of the mRNA to insert the proper amino acid into the polypeptide chain
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This note was uploaded on 08/11/2010 for the course IPHY 3060 taught by Professor Allen,davi during the Fall '09 term at Colorado.

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Lecture 7 Physiological Regulation of Protein Synthesis -...

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