Lecture 9 Cellular Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

Lecture 9 Cellular Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biogenesis...

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IPHY 3060 Lecture 9: Cellular Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biogenesis
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Synthesizing macromolecules—RNA transcription, protein synthesis protein degradation Transporting organelles or substances within the cell Undergoing movement of cells or cell structures such as cilia, flagella, etc. Pumping ions against gradients Cells Require Energy To Undergo Cellular Functions
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ATP is the Energy Currency of the Cell Cleavage of phosphoanhydride bonds is extremely exothermic
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Formation of ATP Requires Energy Animals: oxidation of sugars and fatty acids to CO 2 and O 2 to produce ATP Plants: photosynthesis , harvesting of light energy to produce ATP and sugars
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ATP Synthesis in Animal Cells: Oxidative Phosphorylation
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Oxidative Phosphorylation
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Oxidative Phosphorylation: The formation of ATP using the complete breakdown or oxidation of sugars or fats
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The Mitochondrion—Site of Energy Production Fairly large and numerous organelle—can occupy 25% of cell volume Found in higher numbers in tissues requiring lots of energy—skeletal muscle, heart cells, neurons, liver cells Is double-membraned and thus has two compartments: 1) intermembrane space between inner and outer membrane 2) Matrix —inside inner membrane
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4 Main Steps of Oxidative Phosphorylation of Sugars Glycolysis —initial breakdown of glucose to form pyruvate, NADH, H+ and 2 ATPs Citric Acid Cycle —Breakdown of pyruvate to CO 2 and H 2 O, forms NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain —the movement of electrons into/H+ from NADH and FADH 2 out of the mitochondrial membrane, establishing H+ gradient Synthesis of ATP by ATPase synthase using movement of H+ down its concentration gradient Electron Transport
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Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm Converts one molecule of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate, 2 ATPs, and reduces 2 NAD+ to 2 NADH Occurs in the absence of O 2 --anaerobic
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Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrial matrix and the remaining steps of oxidative phosphorylation occur in the mitochondria
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Citric Acid Cycle Occurs inside mitochondrial matrix Pyruvate is converted into acetyl CoA in the matrix Acetyl CoA is then oxidized to form CO 2 10 NADH and 2 FADH 2 are formed inside mitochondrial matrix
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The Electron Transport Chain Occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane NADH and FADH 2 donate electrons to Complexes I-IV in inner mitochondrial membrane The energy released from electrons donated from NADH allows H+ ions to be pumped out of mitochondrial matrix and into the intermitochondrial space Electrons are eventually donated to 2 H+ and ½ O 2 to form H 2 O
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Lecture 9 Cellular Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biogenesis...

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