Lecture 18 Synaptic Transmission and Synaptic Plasticity

Lecture 18 Synaptic Transmission and Synaptic Plasticity -...

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IPHY 3060 Lecture 18: Synaptic Transmission and Synaptic Plasticity
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Main points from last time Resting membrane potential is a difference in charge between the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell such that the inside has a net negative charge relative to the outside of the cell An action potential is an explosive, all-or-none depolarization of the membrane Action potentials are transmitted across the synapse between neurons by release of neurotransmitter, which binds to receptors on the postsynaptic cell and induces a voltage change there
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Key Point: A single action potential is usually not sufficient to induce an action potential on the postsynaptic cell
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Post-Synaptic Potential:
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Post-Synaptic Potential: A small change in membrane voltage produced by the neurotransmitter released by a single action potential
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Key Point: A post-synaptic potential can be either excitatory or inhibitory
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Postsynaptic potentials can be either excitatory or inhibitory Excitatory PSP —opening of a Na+ or Ca 2+ channel, depolarizing postsynaptic membrane Inhibitory PSP —opening of a K+ or Cl- channel, hyperpolarizing postsynaptic membrane Excitatory Postsynaptic potential Inhibitory Postsynaptic potential
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A single neuron has thousands of excitatory and inhibitory inputs
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Key Point: The summation of all PSPs to a neuron determines whether an action potential will be generated
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Threshold potential Threshold potential: the potential at which an action potential becomes all-or-none
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Spatial and Temporal Summation of PSPs Temporal summation —addition of PSPs from the same neuron across time Spatial summation —addition of PSPs from two nearby neurons
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Termination of Synaptic Signaling
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Termination of Synaptic Signaling Mechanisms by which the effects of neurotransmitters on post-synaptic cells are terminated
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2 Main Methods for Termination of Synaptic Signaling Degradation/deactivation of neurotransmitters— acetylcholinesterase Reuptake of neurotransmitters-- transporters
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Drugs and poisons affecting synaptic transmission Insecticides —inhibit neurotransmitter degradation (acetylcholine)—prolong synaptic transmission, encourage rigid paralysis Prozac— inhibits serotonin re-uptake, prolongs synaptic transmission Cocaine —rapidly inhibits dopamine neurotransmitter re-uptake, prolong synaptic transmission Ritalin —slowly inhibits dopamine re-uptake, prolongs synaptic transmission
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Synaptic Plasticity, Learning, and Memory
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Lecture 18 Synaptic Transmission and Synaptic Plasticity -...

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